IN-TEXT QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q1. page 80.
Is every Office Memorandum a major political decision? If not, what made this one different?
Ans. This order announced a major policy decision. It said that 27% of the vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India are reserved for the Socially and Economically Backward Classes i.e., SEBC. SEBC is another name for all those people who belong to castes that are considered backward by the government. The benefit of job reservation was till then available only to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This order introduced a new third category known as SEBC. Only persons who belong to backward castes were eligible for this quota of 20% jobs.
Q2. page 82.
Which institutions are at work in the running of your school? Would it be better if one person alone took all the decisions regarding management of your school?
Ans. My school is run with the help of the Principal and a team of coordinators. No. It would not be fair if one person alone took all the decisions regarding management of the school. It is also not the spirit of democracy.
Q3. page 82.
Who did what in this case of reservations for backward classes?
• Supreme Court • Made formal announcement about this decision
• Cabinet • Implemented the decision by issuing an order
• President • Took the decision to give 27% job reservations
• Government Officials • Upheld reservations as valid
• Supreme Court • Upheld reservations as valid
• Cabinet • Took the decision to give 27% job reservations
• President • Implemented the decision by issuing an order
• Government Officials • Made formal announcement about this decision
Q4. page 84.
What is the point in having so much debate and discussion in the Parliament when we know that the view of the ruling party is going to prevail?
Ans. Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Debate and discussions shape the decision of the government. They bring pressure on the government to act on a particular issue.
Q5. page 90.
What is better for a democracy: A Prime Minister who can do whatever he wishes or Prime Minister who needs to consult other leaders and parties?
Ans. A Prime Minister who needs to consult other leaders and parties.
Q6. page 90.
Eliamma, Annakutti and Marymol read the section on the President. Each of them had a question. Can you help them in answering these questions?
Eliamma: What happens if the President and the Prime Minister disagree about some policy? Does the view of the Prime Minister always prevail?
Annakutti: I find it funny that the President is the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces. I doubt if the President can even lift a heavy gun. What is the point in making the President the Commander?
Marymol: I would say, what is the point in having a President at all if all the real powers are
with the Prime Minister?
The President is the nominal head of the state. As such he exercises only nominal powers. But the Prime Minister has wide-ranging powers because he is the head of the government. If the President and the Prime Minister disagree about some policy, the view of the Prime Minister always prevails.
The President is the symbolic supreme commander of Armed Forces.
The President is the head of the state whose functions are to a large extent ceremonial. He supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country so that they operate in harmony to achieve the objectives of the state.
Q7. page 92.
Give one reason each to argue that Indian judiciary is independent with respect to:
• Appointment of judges: …
• Removal of judges: …
• Powers of the judiciary: …
• Appointment of judges: The senior judges of the Supreme Court select the new judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. There is very little scope for interference by the political executive.
• Removal of judges: Once a person is appointed as judge of the Supreme Court or .the High Court it is nearly impossible to remove his/her from that position.
• Powers of the judiciary: The judiciary in India is one of the most powerful in the world. The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution of the country. They can declare invalid any law of the legislature or the actions of the executive, whether at the Union level or at the state level, if they find such a law or action is against the Constitution.