TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
WRITE IN BRIEF
Q1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
Ans. (i) The city of London acted as a powerful magnet for migrant population. The city offered all kinds of jobs for people of different status and class. There were jobs for clerks, shopkeepers, skilled artisans, labour class and soldiers also.
(ii) Apart from the London dockyard, five major types of industries employed large population. They were clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery and precision products such as surgical instruments, watches, and objects of precious metal. During the First World War London also started manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods.
Q2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries? Explain the factors which led to this change.
Ans. (i) Large numbers of women got employed in the factories in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. With technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and began working within households. A large number of women used their homes to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through activities like tailoring, washing or match-box making.
(ii) The First World War brought a change in the kind of their work. They withdrew from domestic services to get employment in wartime industries and offices.
Q3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with historical examples.
(i) A private landlord
(ii) A Police Superintendent-incharge of law and order
(iii) A leader of a political party.
Ans. (i) A private landlord: When people migrated to the city in large number in search of jobs, the private landlords took full advantage of the situation. They charged heavy rents exploiting the situation. Thus they were profited due to the existence of a large urban population.
(ii) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order: When London flourished crime also grew rapidly. The police were bothered about law and order. To get rid of it, criminal’s activities were watched, and their ways of life were examined. In order to control the crime
• the authorities imposed high penalties for crime.
• offered work to those who were considered the `deserving poor’.
(iii) A leader of a political party: The poor workers in London demanded relief from the terrible conditions of poverty but the marchers were brutally suppressed by the police in 1887. This episode came to be known as The Bloody Sunday of November 1887. Eventually large masses of people could be drawn into political causes in the city. Again two years later, thousands of London’s dockworkers went on strike and marched through the city. This proved that a political leader was active only at the time of need and is dormant rest of the time. The demands of poor and needy fell on the deaf ears of the political leaders. They made all possible efforts to suppress the protests.
4. Give explanations for the following:
(1) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century?
Why were mass housing schemes planned for workers in London, after the Russian Revolution in 1917? Explain.
(ii) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants?
(iii) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century?
Ans. (i)Older cities like London changed dramatically when people started pouring in after the Industrial Revolution. Factory or workshop owners did not house these migrant workers. Instead, individual land-owners put up cheap tenements for the workers. These tenements were very unsafe. As the condition of the houses was pitiful the need for housing for the poor was felt. Even the well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century because
1. One-room houses of the poor were a serious threat to public health as they were overcrowded, badly ventilated, and lacked sanitation.
2. There were worries about fire hazards created by poor housing.
3. There was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Thus the Workers’ mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious. A variety of steps were taken to clean up London and attempts were made to decongest localities, green the open spaces, reduce pollution and landscape the city.
(ii) Most of the people in the Bombay film industry were themselves migrants who came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry. To give real depiction of Bombay, films were made on the real lives of migrants and their encounter with the real pressures of daily life. It contributed in a big way to produce image of the city as a blend of dream and reality, of slums and star bungalows.
(iii) 1. Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819, after the Maratha defeat in the Anglo-Maratha war. The city quickly expanded. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders and bankers as well as artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.
2. The establishment of textile mills led to a fresh surge in migration. The first cotton textile mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills employing about 146,000 workers.
3. Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India till well into the 20th century. It was also at the junction head of two major railways. The railways encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.
Q1. What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people?
What was the tradition of ‘London Season’? Explain different forms of entertainment that came up in nineteenth century.
(i) For wealthy Britishers, there was London Season. It was an annual cultural event that held in London including operas, classical music performances, etc.
(ii) Working class people usually met in pubs to have a drink, exchange news and sometimes also to organise for political action.
(iii) Several types of large-scale entertainment for the common people came into being. Libraries, art galleries and museums were set up in the 19th century to provide people with a sense of history and pride in the achievements of the British.
(iv)Music halls were popular among the lower classes. By the early 20th century cinema became the great mass entertainment for mixed audiences.
(v) British industrial workers preferred to spend their holidays by the sea.
Q2. Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why was the development of the Underground criticised?
Ans. Older cities like London changed dramatically when people began pouring in after the Industrial Revolution. These migrant people lived in tenements which werefor them began to be felt.
cheap but unsafe and dirty. Hence, the need for housing Several steps were taken to clean up London. Attempts were made to decongest localities, green and open spaces, reduce pollution and landscape the city. Large blocks of apartments were built and rent control was introduced to ease the impact of a severe housing crisis. The congestion in the 19th-century industrial city also led to a yearning for clean country air. Many wealthy in the countrysid.
Architect and planner Ebenezer Howard developed the principle of the and Garden City, a pleasant space full of plants and trees, where people would both live and work. Following Howard’s ideas Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker designed the garden city of New Earswick. But only well-off workers could afford these houses. Between the two World Wars the responsibility for housing the working classes was accepted by the British State, and a million houses were built. Meanwhile, city had extended beyond the range where people could walk to work and the development of suburbs made new forms of mass transport essential.
The London Underground solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city. The very first section of the
opened on 10 Janua Underground in the january 1863 between Paddington and Farrington Street in Lon don. By 1880, the train service expanded to a great extent.
But the process of construction of railways invited a massive destruction. Several houses were destroyed, streets were broken and deep pits and trenches were dug in the ground. To make approximately two miles of railway, 900 houses had to be destroyed. The poor people, whose houses got destroyed due to the construction of railways, criticised the development of the Underground railway. Still one couldn’t deny the fact that the t inderground in the long run became a huge success.
Q3. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. Yip what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a reasons for your view. newspaper. to either support or oppose this, giving
Through your esteemed newspaper I wish to raise my concern about the reformation plan of Haussmann in Paris. First, I would like to explain what Haussmanisation was. In fact Louis Napoleon III (a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte) when became emperor in 1852 undertook the work of rebuilding of Paris. He proposed Baron Haussmann, the chief architect of the new Paris; for this purpose. Soon, Haussmann began rebuilding and reshaping the entire city of Paris. It is therefore called the Haussmanisation of Paris.
No doubt it has created some problem for the poor, but more than that it has changed the face of Paris. Development of a nation can’t compromise in the interest of a lesser section of people. So, whenever development takes a shape it affects some people, but in the interest of nation it is necessary. The way in which Haussmann rebuilt Paris is really praiseworthy. Straight, broad avenues or boulevards and open spaces have been re-designed and full-grown trees have been transplanted. Not only the shape but the system has also been reconstituted. Policemen have been employed, night patrols have been started and bus shelters and tap water have been introduced. All these are in the interest of a nation and people at large. So we can undermine the pains and sufferings of the poor for that. The government will surely take steps for their rehabilitation.
Q4. To what extent does government regulation and new laws solve problems of pollution? Discuss one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
(i) Public life (ii) Private life
Ans. City developments everywhere occur at the expense of ecology and the environment. Large quantities of refuse and waste products polluted air and water and excessive noise became a feature of urban life. Pollution increased
due to extensive use of coal in homes and industries, smoke coming from hundreds of factory chimneys.
(i) In order to control it, the Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 were passed but they went futile.
(ii) Colonial authorities also made efforts to control pollution but the railway line introduced in 1855 brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture—coal from Raniganj.
(iii) In 1863, in Calcutta for the first time smoke nuisance legislation was made.
• Make sure you watch any one of the Mumbai films discussed in this chapter. Compare and contrast the portrayal of the city in one film discussed in this chapter, with a film set in Mumbai, which you have recently seen.
Ans. Attempt yourself.