Why Do We Fall Ill – Science – (NCERT Solutions for Class 9)

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On Page – 178

  1. State any two conditions essential for good health.

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    Solution: Good health of a person depends on
    a) Social environment.
    b) Public cleanliness.
    c) Good economic conditions and earnings.
    d) Social equality and harmony.
  2. State any two conditions essential for being free of disease.

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    Solution: The conditions essential for being free of diseases are:
    a) Having good food (balanced diet)
    b) Personal and public hygiene maintenance
  3. Are the answers to the above questions necessarily the same or different? Why?

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    Solution: The answers are not same all the time, because the meaning of health varies from person to person.
    For example, good health for a dancer may be being able to stretch his body into difficult but graceful positions. On the other hand, good health for a musician may mean having enough breathing capacity in his/her lungs to control his/her voice. There is one similarity in both the cases. If the conditions essential for good health are maintained, then the chance of getting any disease is zero.

On Page 180

  1. List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor? Why or why not?

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    Solution: When there is a disease, its symptoms and signs appear. These symptoms may be headache, cough, loose-motions, wound with pus, etc. These symptoms indicate disease but do not tell what the disease is. So, it is advisable to go to the doctor to diagnose any signs of a disease on the basis of these symptoms. The doctor will get laboratory tests done, if required, for the confirmation of a particular disease.
  2. In which of the following case do you think the long-term effects on your health are  likely to be most unpleasant?
    •If you get jaundice,
    •If you get lice,
    •If you get acne. Why?

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    Solution: Our body will not be effected by lice and acne very much. But in case of Jaundice, there will be severe long lasting effects. For example:
    a) High temperature, headache and joint pains.
    b) Feeling of nausea and vomiting.
    c) Initiating rashes.
    The patient will suffer from poor health and will recover by taking the suitable treatment and complete bed rest.

On Page 187

  1. Why are we normally advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick?

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    Solution: All the normal functions of the body get disturbed in case illness. So, a nourishing food is required, which is easily digestible and contains all the nutrients. This is the main reason that bland and nourishing food is advised to take during sickness.
  2.  What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?

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    Solution: Infectious diseases spread by different means. These are:
    a) Through air: An infected person when sneezes or coughs releases droplets containing germs which infect another healthy person through air and microbes enter a new body.
    Examples: common cold, pneumonia and tuberculosis.
    b) Through water: contaminated water will infect many people and make them ill. Example: cholera, amoebiasis, hepatitis spread through water.
    c) Through sexual contact Some diseases like AIDS and syphilis, etc., are transmitted by exual contact. Other than this, AIDS virus also spread through blood, infected syringes, infected mother to her baby during pregnancy and through breast feeding.
    d) Through vectors There are some animals which act as intermediaries or vectors for a particular diseases. The vectors carry diseases from infected person to the healthy person.
    For example, mosquito spread malaria causing organism in humans, while sucking their blood.
  3. What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?

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    Solution : To prevent the incidence of infectious diseases in school following precautions can be taken:
    a) Avoid contact of students suffering from air borne diseases like common cold, cough, eye, flu, etc.
    b) By checking the availability of clean drinking water in school.
    c) Clean surroundings in school will not allow the growth and multiplication of vectors.
    d) Starting childhood immunisation programmers in schools.
  4. What is immunisation?

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    Solution: Immunisation is a process of administration (injecting) of vaccine into a healthy person in order to develop immunity against a disease. Immunity means the ability of a body to recognize, destroy and eliminate external disease causing agents.
  5. What are the immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre in your locality? Which of these diseases are the major health problems in your area?

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    Solution: The following immunisation programme is available at the nearest health centre in our locality
    a) Immunisation for infants-OPT, BCG, polio, measles and MMR.
    b) For children-Typhoid, TT. DT, small pox and TAB.
    c) For pregnant woman- TT and hepatitis-B.
    The diseases like typhoid, polio, measles, tetanus are the major health problems in our locality. To prevent these diseases, our government have initiated expanded immunisation programme all over the country.

Exercises

  1. How many times did you fall ill in the last one years? What were the illnesses?
    (a) Think of one change you could make in your habits in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
    (b) Think of one change you would wish for in your surroundings in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.

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    Solution : I fell ill twice in the last one year. The disease, I first suffered from was diarrhoea and secondary the dengue fever.
    (a) The changes I brought in my habits after suffering from these disease to protect myself in near future are
    (i) I will always drink clean, pure water and wash hands before eating anything.
    (ii) I will live in clean surroundings where disease spreading vectors could not mulitply. For example, mosquitoes.
    (b) Pure drinking water should be available always. The intake of impure water is the main cause of many infectious diseases.
  2. A doctor/nurse/health-worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.

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    Solution: A doctor/nurse/health-worker take following precautions to avoid become sick themselves
    (i) Get immunisation done against all the infectious diseases.
    (ii) Take balanced diet (rich in proteins especially) to strengthen their immune system.
    (iii) Dispose off blood samples, urine or stool, sputum, etc., carefully.
    (iv) Wear masks while diagnosing mouth or chest infections.
    (v) Clean their hands and wear gloves even while doing minor surgeries.
  3. Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the incidence of these diseases.

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    Solution: (i) I conducted a survey in my neighbourhood and found following three most common diseases.
    (ii) I will live in clean surroundings where disease spreading vectors could not mulitply.
    For example, mosquitoes.
    (b) Pure drinking water should be available always. The intake of impure water is the main cause of many infectious diseases.
  4. A doctor/nurse/health-worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.

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    Solution: A doctor/nurse/health-worker take following precautions to avoid become sick themselves
    (i) Wear masks while diagnosing mouth or chest infections.
    (ii) Clean their hands and wear gloves even while doing minor surgeries.
    (iii) Get immunisation done against all the infectious diseases.
    (iv) Take balanced diet (rich in proteins especially) to strengthen their immune system.
    (v) Dispose off blood samples, urine or stool, sputum, etc., carefully.
  5. Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the
    incidence of these diseases.

    Show Answer


    Solution: I conducted a survey in my neighbourhood and found following three most common diseases.

    Typhoid
    Symptoms: Headache and fever which remains high in the second week and then declines
    Steps could be taken :
    • Proper hygiene in surrounding areas of living.
    • Safe disposal of excreta and other wastes.
    • Providing TAB and typhoid oral vaccine.

    Cholera
    Symptoms: Painless watery diarrhoea, effortless vomiting
    Steps could be taken :
    • Good sanitary condition in community.
    • Provision of clean,purified drinking water.
    • Providing standard cholera vaccination in the locality.

    Dengue fever
    Symptoms: High fever with headache, weakness and joint pains
    Steps could be taken :
    • Maintenance of hygienic conditions in community.
    • Preventing the mosquito breeding sites.
    • Public awarness programme against musquito borne diseases.

  6. A baby is not-able to tell her/ his caretakers that she/ he is sick. What would help us to find out
    (a) That the baby is sicks?
    (b) What is the sickness?

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    Solution: (a) Symptoms to help in finding out that the baby is sick are:
    Redness of eyes
    Drooping of eyes
    Continuous crying
    High temperature of body.

    (b) Signs which help to indicate the sickness in baby
    High fever. Headache. Muscular pain. Feeling of shivering and cold indicate malaria.
    Loose motions. Stomach pain indicate diarrhea. Redness and persistent rubbing of eyes indicate eye flu.
    Pale skin. Yellow urine. Yellowing of eyes indicate jaundice.
    Doctors suggest for laboratory tests. if there is fever with no other symptoms to find out the kind of sickness.

  7. Under which of the following conditions is a person most likely to fall sick?
    (a) When she is recovering from malaria.
    (b) When she has recovered from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox.
    (c) When she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox. Why?

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    Solution: In condition (c), a person is most likely to fall sick. The reason’s are:
    (a) in case of malaria, body becomes weak and loss of body fluids occur. In this condition, it she takes four days fast, her recovery from malaria related weakness will not occur and she will become weaker.
    (b) Her immune system is already weak due to malaria and if she takes care of someone suffering from chicken pox, there is high probability that she may also suffer this diseases.
  8. Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?
    (a) When you are taking examinations.
    (b) When you have travelled by bus and train for two days.
    (c) When your friend is suffering from measles. Why?

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    Solution: In condition (c), Chance of falling sick are maximum.
    Measles is an infectious viral disease of young children which spreads through nasal or throat discharge. In. contact of a friend suffering from measles can cause you sick.

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