IN-TEXT QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q1. page 28.
List two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas of private properly.
• Under the capitalist system, private property was owned by individuals while under the socialist system, property was controlled by the society as a whole or the nation.
• Under the capitalist system, the propertied were concerned only with personal gain while people under the socialist system were concerned for the welfare of those who made the property productive.
Q2. page 29.
Imagine that a meeting has been called in your area to discuss the socialist idea of doing away with private property and introducing collective ownership. Write the speech you would make at the meeting if you are:
• a poor labourer working in the fields
• a medium level landowner
• a house owner
Q3. page 33.
Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905? What were the demands of revolutionaries?
Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent. Next, four members of the Assembly of Russian workers were dismissed at the Putilov Iron Works. These were enough to anger the Russian workers. They rose for industrial action. They went on strike.
The demands of revolutionaries were:
• reduction in the working hours.
• an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
Q4. page 36.
Look again at Source A and Box 1.
• List five changes in the mood of the workers.
• Place yourself in the position of a woman who has seen both situations and write an account of what has changed.
Five changes in the mood of the workers:
(a) They showed fearlessness by calling on strike all of a sudden.
(b) Unity among men and women was the most unique feature.
(c) Women workers became an inspiring force for their male co-workers.
(d) The mood of the workers was that of sacrificing. They were ready to go to any extent for the welfare of their community.
(e) Their determination to their cause was also praiseworthy.
After the February Revolution, workers became very bold. They had no fear of counter action. They supported each other and there was not any gender differences among them.
Q5. page 40.
Read the two views on the revolution in the countryside. Imagine yourself to be a witness to the events. Write a
short account from the standpoint of
• an owner of an. estate
• a small peasant
• a journalist
• It was really unbearable for the owner of an estate to lose all his land and assets. But there was no one whom he could express his grievances. His land and stock farms were looted and distributed among the small farmers.
• It was a great occasion for a small peasant. He was given enough land and assets. He became wealthy all of a sudden.
• He got sufficient matter to publish them in his journal or newspaper.
Q6. page 41.
Why did people in Central Asia respond to the Russian Revolution in different ways?
As the first revolution that occurred in February, 1917 freed the people of Central Asia from the oppression of the Tsar, they showed great enthusiasm. They began to nurture hopes for autonomy. But they didn’t show that enthusiasm when the second revolution occurred in October, 1917. They were in fact panicked because the second revolution was accompanied by violence, pillage, taxes and the establishment of dictatorial power.
Q7. page 47.
Compare the passages written by Shaukat Usmani and Rabindranath Tagore. Read them in relation to sources C, D and E.
• What did Indians find impressive about the USSR?
• What did the writers fail to notice?
• People were free from the oppression of the Tsar. They were no more victims of caste and religious barriers. The real brotherhood of mankind could be seen in the USSR. Asians and Europeans got mingled freely. People appeared happy, confident and bold. This impressed Indians to a great extent.
• Citizens were devoid of essential freedom. The writers failed to notice it.