Let's first see some examples of Present Perfect Tense.
He has gone.
The train has arrived.
I have completed my project.
I have taken bath.
It has just struck 7.
Tom has just arrived.
|Type of Sentence||Structure||Example|
|Affermative||Subject + has/have + V-III + Object|
*If the subject is a singular third person then use 'has'
|He has played chess.|
I have studied.
|Negative||Subject + has/have + not + V-III + Object||He has not played chess.|
I have not studied.
|Interrogative||Has/Have + Subject + V-III + Object?||Has he played chess?|
Have I studied?
|Interrogative-Negative||Has/Have + Subject + not + V-III + Object?||Has he not played chess?|
Have I not studied?
When we use Present Perfect Tense ?
- To indicate completed activities in the immediate past (with just).
He has just gone out.
It has just struck 8.
- To express past actions whose time is not given and not defined.
Have you read 'Two States'?
I have never known him to be angry.
- To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself.
The lift has broken down. [So we have to use the stairs]
I have completed my work. [Now I am free] He hasn't arrived yet. [So we are still waiting for him] He has eaten all the fruits [Now no more fruits are available for you] I have cut my finger. [and its bleeding now]
- To denote an action beginning at some tme in the past and continuing up to the present moment (often with 'since' and 'for' phrase).
I have known him for a ling time.
We have lived here for 10 years.
We haven't seen Tom for several months.
He has lived in this house for fice years.
She has been ill since Tuesday.