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TEXTBOOK  QUESTIONS  SOLVED

Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) Migrations change number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) none of the above.

Ans. – C

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high death rates
(c) high life expectancies
(d) more married couples

Ans. – A

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand miles

Ans. –  B

(iv) According to the census 2001, a “literate” person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(b) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3 R’S (reading, writing, arithmetic)

Ans. – C

Q2. Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

Ans. – (i) Since 1981, the rate of population growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rates declined rapidly.

(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

Ans. – The major components of population growth are:
(a) Birth rate
(b) Death rate
(c) Migration
(a) Birth rate: It is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates.
(b) Death rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.
(c) Migration: It plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population. It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.

(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Ans. –  Age Structure: The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. The population of a nation is generally grouped into these age structures – children (generally below 15 years), working age (15-59 years) and aged (above 59 years).
• Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
• Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

Ans. –  Migration changes not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition. In India, the rural urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population in cities and towns. The urban population has increased from 17.29 per cent of the total population in 1951, 27.78 per cent in 2001 to 31.16 per cent in 2011.

Q3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Ans. –

 Population Growth Population Change Population growth refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country or territory during a specific period of time, generally during the last ten years expressed in percentage. Population change refers to the change in the distribution, composition or size of population during a specific period of time. It is expressed in the addition of number of people.

Q4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

Ans. Occupational structure refers to the distribution of the population according to different types of occupation. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The proportion of people working in different activities is an index of development. It varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities. In India, about 64% of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13% and 20% respectively. There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times. Thus, occupational structure is directly associated with development.

Q5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Ans. There are several advantages of having healthy population:
(i) Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. The healthier the population of a country, more would be the scope of development.
(ii) A healthy population is a real asset to the country. A healthy person is more efficient and productive than an unhealthy one.
(iii) A person with sound body and mind will contribute to his/her country in the most positive way. It is therefore, necessary to give stress on the health of a person.

Q6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Ans. The Government of India invited the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952 in order to improve individual health and welfare and also to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis. The National Population Policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned efforts.
The NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention. The significant features of this policy are:
(i) Imparting free and compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(iii) Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
(iv) Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
(v) Making family welfare a people centred programme.
(vi) Strengthening legal marriages to prevent child marriage.
(vii) Providing food supplements and nutritional services.

PROJECT/ ACTIVITY

• Conduct a class census by preparing a questionnaire. The questionnaire should contain minimum five questions. Questions should relate to students, their family members, their class performance, their health, etc. Each student is required to fill up the questionnaire. Complete the information in numerical terms (in terms of percentage). Present the information through pie-chart, bar-diagram or in any other way.