Physical Features of India – Class 9 IX – Geography Social Science – Textbook NCERT Solutions

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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(a) Coast
(b) Island
(c) Peninsula
(d) None of the above

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Ans. –  C

(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called as
(a) Himachal
(c) Purvachal
(b) Uttarakhand
(d) None of the above

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Ans. – C

(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(a) Coromandel
(b) Konkan
(c) Kannad
(d) Northern Circar

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Ans. –  C

(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi
(b) Kanchenjunga
(c) Mahendragiri
(d) Khasi

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Ans. – C

Q.2 Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What are tectonic plates?

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Ans. –  (i) Tectonic plates are large fragments of earth’s crust.

(ii) Which continents of today were part of the Gondwana land?

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Ans. – (ii) Asia, Africa, Australia, South America and Antarctica.

(iii) What is Bhabar?

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Ans. –  (iii) The Bhabar is a narrow belt of plain which is covered with pebbles and lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Teesta.

(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.

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Ans. -(iv) • The Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
• Himachal or lesser Himalayas (Middle Himalayas).
• The Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas),

(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?

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Ans. – (v) Malwa plateau lies between the Aravali and Vindhya ranges.

(vi)Name the island group of India having coral origin.

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Ans. –  (vi) Lakshadweep Islands group.

Q3. Distinguish between
(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates.

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Ans.

Converging tectonic platesDiverging tectonic plates
• The plates that come towards each other and form convergent boundary are called converging tectonic plates.
• In the event of two plates coming together they
may either collide and crumble, or one may slide under the other.
• The plates that move away from each other and form divergent
boundary are called diverging tectonic plates.
• They do not collide and crumble. They also do not slide under
the other.

 



(ii) Bhangar and Khadar.

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Ans.

BhangarKhadar
• Bhangar is old alluvial soil.
• This soil is found far from the river basins.
• This soil is less fertile and therefore, not suitable for agriculture.
• Khadar is newer alluvial soil.
• This soil is found close to the river basins.
• This soil is very fertile and therefore, very



(iii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.

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Ans.

Western GhatsKhadar
• The Western Ghats are formed on the western side or arm of the peninsular plateau.
• The Western Ghats are regular and continuous and can be crossed through passes only.
• They lie parallel to the Malabar coast.
• They are comparatively higher in elevation. Their average elevation elevation is 900 – 1600 meters.
• The highest peaks in the Western Ghats are the Anai Mudi and the Doda Betta.
• The Eastern Ghats are formed on the eastern side or arm of the peninsular plateau.
• The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
• They lie parallel to the Coromandel coast.
• They are comparatively lower elevation. Their average is 600 meters.• The have highest peak in the eastern Ghats is Mahendragiri.


Q4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed?

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Ans. It is believed that millions of years ago India was part of a big continent, known as the Gondwanaland. The Peninsular part of the Gondwana land was the oldest landmass. The Gondwana land included India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antartica as one single landmass. The convectional currents split the crust into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate after being separated from the Gondwanaland, towards north. The northward drift resulted in the collision of the plate with the much larger Eurasian plate. Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.

Q5. Which are the major physiographic di visions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.

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Ans. The major physiographic division of India are given below:

(i) The Himalayan Mountains
(ii) The Northern Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Indian Desert
(v) The Coastal Plains
(vi)The Islands

Below is given the contrast between the Himalayan region and the Peninsular Plateau:

The Himalayan RegionThe Peninsular Region
• It consists of the loftiest mountains and deep valleys.

• It is formed due to the collision of the IndoAustralian and Eurasian plates.

• In the Himalayan region we find the highest mountains of the world.

• It is formed at the edge of the Indo-Gangetic plain.

• There are many well-known hill-stations found in the Himalayan region. Examples are: Shimla, Mussoorie, Darjeeling, etc.

• The Himalayan region contains only a few minerals.

• The rivers that originate from the Himalayas are perennial.

• It consists of broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills.
• It is formed due to the reaking and drifting of the ondwanaland.
• We don’t fund very high peak s in the Peninsular Plateau.
• It is formed at the edge of the Deccan Plateau.
• No well-known hill station is found in the Peninsular
Plateau.
• The Peninsular Plateau is the storehouse of the minerals.
• The rivers that originate from plateau are seasonal in nature.

 


Q6. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.

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Ans. The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems, namely — the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is formed of alluvial soil. The deposition of aluvium in a vast basin lying at the foothills of the Himalayas over millions of years formed this fertile plain. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh square kin. The length of this plain is 2400 km and its breadth is 320 km. It is the most densely populated physiographic division of India. With a rich soil cover combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate it is agriculturally a very productive area of India.
The northern plain is broadly divided into three sections. The western part of the northern plain is known as the Punjab Plains. Formed by the Indus and its tributaries, the larger part of this plain lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributaries such as the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj originate in the Himalayas. The Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It is spread over the states of North India Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, partly Jharkhand and West Bengal. To its east, particularly in Assam lies the Brahmaputra Plain.

Q7. Write short notes on the following:
(1) The Indian Desert

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Ans. – (i) The Indian Desert: The Indian Desert, popularly known as the Thar desert, lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills. It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes. This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year. It has arid climate with low vegetation cover. Streams appear during the rainy season. Soon after the rainy season they disappear into the sand. Luni is the only large river in this region. Crescent shaped dunes popularly known as Barchans are an important feature of the Indian Desert.


(ii) The Central Highland

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Ans. – The Central Highland: The Peninsular Plateau consists of the broad divisions — the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. The part of the Peninsular plateau to the north of the Narmada river covers a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhyas range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravalis on the northwest. The further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan. The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope. The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east. The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.
 

(iii) The Island Groups of India

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Ans. – The Island Groups of India: India has two island groups — the Lakshadweep Islands and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The Lakshadweep Islands group lies close to the Malabar coast of Kerala. This group of islands is composed of small coral islands. Earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Atnindive. In 1973, these were named as Lakshadweep. It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti Island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located in the Bay of Bengal. They are bigger in size and are more numerous and scattered. The entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories—the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. These island groups are of great strategic importance for the country. They lie close to equator and experience .
 


MAP SKILLS

 

Q1. On an outline map of India show the following:
(i) Mountain and hill ranges—the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali and the Cardamom Hills.
(ii) Peaks — K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus — Chotanagpur and Maiwa.
(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands.

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Ans.



PROJECT/ ACTIVITY

 Q1. Locate the peaks, passes, ranges, plateaus, hills and duns hidden in the puzzle. Try to find where these features are located. You may start your search horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

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Ans. Do it yourself with the help of the clues given below:

VerticalHorizontal
• Chotanagpur
• Konkan
• Aravali
• Malwa
• Jaintia
• Shipki La
• Boumdila
• Nilgiri
• Vindhya
• Sahyadri
• Satpura
• Nathula
• Everest
• Garo
• Anai Mudi
• Patli
• Thar
• Cardamom


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