TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?
Ans. The people of a country are an important resource if they become educated and healthy. In fact, human resource is superior to other resources like land and physical capital. It is human resource that makes use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on their own. They are made useful by human beings.
Q2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Ans. It is human resource that makes use of other resources such as land and physical capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on their own. Instead they are made useful by human resources. Thus, human resource is superior to other resources.
Q3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Ans. Education is an important input for the growth of an individual. It plays a major role in human capital formation, that adds to the productive power of the country. It helps a person to realise his potential and the ability to do a work. Educated people gain through higher incomes. Society also gains in other indirect ways because the advantages of a more educated population spreads to those also who themselves are not directly educated.
Q4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Ans. Health is another important input for human capital formation. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation indeed. Health is an indispensable basis for realising one’s well-
being. It not only improves the quality of life of an individual but also adds to the human resource development on which various sectors of national economy depend.
Q5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
Ans. Health is an important aspect of individual’s life. It does not mean survival only. It involves the physical, mental, economic and social well-being of an individual. Health covers a wide range of activities including family welfare, population control, drug control, immunisation and prevention of food adulteration etc. One cannot work better if he/she is sick or physically weak. A sick labourer without access to medical facilities withholds his own productivity and productivity of the nation. Hence, a sound health is very much essential in the individual’s working life.
Q6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
Ans. Primary Sector – Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, poultry farming, fishing, mining and quarrying.
Secondary Sector – Manufacturing.
Tertiary Sector – Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance, etc.
Q7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Ans. Activities that add value to the national income are termed as economic activities. In other words, activities which are performed for money are called economic activities. These include production of goods or services including government service. On the other hand, non-economic activities are not performed for monetary gains. Instead they are performed to satisfy emotional needs. You can understand the two activities through an example: If a woman is a Chef in a hotel she gets paid for it. This is an economic activity. When she cooks food for her family she is performing a non-economic activity.
Q8. Why are women employed in low paid work?
Ans. Education and skill are the major determinants of the earnings of any individual in the market. A majority of women have meagre education and low skill formation. They also lack scientific and technological competence. Hence, they are paid low as compared to men. Most women work where job security is not there. Various activities relating to legal protection is meagre. Employment in this sector is characterised by irregular and low income.
Q9. How will you explain the term unemployment?
Ans. Unemployment is a situation where people are willing to work at the going wages but fail to find jobs. It can be seen in both rural and urban areas of India. It is a common phenomenon in the developing countries. It leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are an asset for the economy turn into a liability due to unemployment.
Q10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Ans. Although both types of unemployment are found in rural areas, they differ from one another in some aspects. Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing is done. Certain months do not provide much work to the people dependent on agriculture.
In case of disguised unemployment people appear to be employed but actually they aren’t. They have agricultural plot where they find work. This usually happens among family members engaged in agricultural activity. The work requires the service of five people but engages eight people. Three people are extra. The contribution made by the three extra people does not add to the contribution made by the five people. If these three people are removed the
productivity of the field will not decline. Thus we can say that the three extra people are disguised unemployed.
Q11. Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?
Ans. The problem of educated unemployment is peculiar in itself. Many youth with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find job. A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed as surplus of manpower in certain categories co-exist shortage of manpower in others. Even the technically qualified persons are also facing the same problem of unemployment. On one hand, these people are unemployed while on the other hand there is a dearth of technical skills required for economic growth.
Q12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
Ans. India can build the maximum employment opportunity in the tertiary sector. In this sector, various new services are now appearing like biotechnology, information technology and so on. In recent years maximum employment opportunities have arisen in the BPOs or call centres.
Q13.Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?
Ans. The following measures can be taken in order to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed:
(i) Education should be planned and executed properly so that future prospects might not be damaged.
(ii) Vocational education should be promoted. A farmer’s son should be trained about how to improve the productivity of his field rather than doing simple graduation.
(iii) Theoretical knowledge is important but technical education is in no way less important. If a child’s brain is technical he/she should be encouraged in that direction, because only then he/she will be able to achieve maximum in life.
(iv) Education should be given in such a way that it encourages people to become self-reliant and enterprising.
(v) More and more employment opportunities should be generated so that maximum educated youth may get absorbed.
Q14. Can you imagine some villages which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Ans. There are several villages which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many. I can give an example of my own village in this regard. The name of the village is Pachrukhi. Initially the village was very backward with no facilities at all. The roads were kutcha, the houses were mud-built, there was no electricity, no school, etc. The villagers were engaged in agricultural activities all the time. By and by the village got developed. The roads and houses became pucca. With the advent of electricity there came other opportunities in the village. Schools and colleges were opened. Tailoring centres were set up. As a result, job opportunities came up and many youth of the village got employed.
Q15. Which capital would you consider the best-land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?
Ans. I think human capital is the best of all. Investment in human capital through education, training, etc. can give higli rates of return in the future. Also, human capital can be developed to any extent in the benefit of a nation’s economy. We can cite the example of Japan. It has invested in human resource as a result of which it is one of the rich/developed countries of the world. Thus, human resource is superior to other resources like land and physical capital, Human resource can make use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own. They are made useful by human beings.