Manufacturing Industries – Class 10 X – Geography Social Science – Textbook NCERT Solutions



Q1. Multiple choice questions.
(I) Which one of the following industries uses limestoil, as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Sugar
(d) Jute

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Ans. – B

(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets sir( I for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL
(b) SAIL
(c) TATA Steel
(d) MNCC

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Ans. –  B

(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxiIi as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Jute
(d) Steel

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Ans. –  A

(iv) Which one of the following industries manufacturea telephones, computer, etc?
(a) Steel
(b) Aluminium
(c) Electronic
(d) Information Technology

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Ans. – C

Q2. Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 word..
(i) What is manufacturing?
(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location 4,1 the industry.
(iii) Name any three human factors for the location ol nn industry.
(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.
(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement.

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(i) Manufacturing refers to producing goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products. It helps transforming the raw materials into finished goods on a large scale and thus help earning profit as finished goods are costlier than raw materials.

(ii) Three physical factors for the location of the industry are
(a) Availability of raw material
(b) Availability of cheap and sufficient power supply
(c) Availability of market.

(iii) Three human factors for the location of an industry
(a) Availability of cheap labour
(b) Easy access to capital
(c) Availability of services such as banking, insurance, transport, consultants and financial advice, etc.

(iv) Basic or key industries are industries that supply their products or raw materials to other industries to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting.

(v) Cement is used for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. These industries use bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.

Q3. Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.
(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems do the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(ii) How do industries pollute the environment? (ii0 Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry.

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(i) Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications. An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex—from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
Though, India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world still it is unable I perform to its full potential mainly due to the following problems:
• High costs and limited availability of coking coal
• Lower productivity of labour
• Irregular supply of energy
• Poor infrastructure Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment have given a boost to the industry with the efforts ol private entrepreneurs.

(ii) Undoubtedly the rapid growth in industries has  led  to considerable economic growth but it has also led  to the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise eventually resulting in degradation of environment. Industries are responsible for five types of pollution:
(a) Air                                     (b) Water
(c) Thermal                           (d) Land
(e) Noise

(a) Air pollution: It is caused by presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide and smoke. Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles such as dust. sprays, mist and smoke. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, etc.

(b) Water pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents are discharge( I into rivers. The main industries that are responsible for it include paper, pulp, chemical. textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries. tanneries and electroplating industries that lel out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides. fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon. plastics and rubber, etc. into the water bodies.

(c) Thermal pollution of water: It occurs when hoi water from factories and thermal plants is
drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.

(d) Land pollution: Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage makes the land unfertile. Rain water takes the pollutants deep to the ground thus contaminating the ground water.

(e) Noise pollution: Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, electric drills etc cause a lot of noise pollution. Noise pollution causes irritation and anger. It can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart-beat and blood pressure.

Environmental Degradation can be controlled by adopting these steps:
(a) Water should be reused and recycled to minimise the use of water.
(b) Rainwater should be harvested to meet water requirements.
(c) Use of oil or gas should be made instead of coal in factories to reduce smoke.
(d) Generators should be fitted with silencers to reduce noise pollution.
(e) Earplugs and earphones can also be used to save oneself from the side effects of noise pollution.
(f) Hot water and effluents should be treated before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
(g) Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry where there is a threat to ground water resources also needs to be regulated legally.


Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets.
(i) Used to drive machinery (5)
(ii) People who work in a factory (6)
(iii) Where the product is sold (6)
(iv) A person who sells goods (8)
(u) Thing produced (7)
(vi) To make or produce (11)
(vii) Land, Water and Air degraded (9)

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(iii) MARKET

• Select one agro-based and one mineral-based induslyg in your area.
(i) What are the raw materials they use?
(ii) What are the other inputs in the process 01 manufacturing that involve transportation cost?
(iii) Are these factories following environmental norms”

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Ans. Do yourself.

• Solve the puzzle by following your search • horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers:

1. Textiles, sugar, vegetable oil and plantation industries deriving raw materials from agriculture are called.
2. The basic raw material for sugar industry.
3. This fibre is also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’.
4. Iron-ore, coking coal, and limestone are the chief raw materials of this industry.
5. A public sector steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
6. Railway diesel engines are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh at this place.

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