History and Sport : The Story of Circket – Class 9 IX – History Social Science – Textbook NCERT Solutions

0

TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

ACTIVITIES

Q1. Imagine a conversation between Thomas Arnold, the headmaster of Rugby School, and Mahatma Gandhi on the value of cricket in education. What would each say? Write out a conversation in the form of a dialogue.

Show Answer


Ans. For self-attempt.

Q2. Find out the history of any one local sport. Ask your parents and grandparents how this game was played in their childhood. See whether it is played in the same way nowadays. Try and think of the historical forces that might account for the changes.

Show Answer


Ans.
Students are suggested to give reference of either kabaddi or polo.

QUESTIONS

Q1. Test cricket is a unique game in many ways. Discuss some of the ways in which it is different from other team games. How are the peculiarities of test cricket shaped by its historical beginnings as a village game?

Show Answer


Ans. Some of the ways in which test cricket is different from other team games:
(i) In test cricket, a match can go on for five days and still end in a draw. No other modern team sports  takes even half as much time to complete. A football match is generally over in an hour and a half of playing time. Even baseball, a long, drawn out but-and-ball game by the standards of modern sport, completes nine innings in less than half the time that it takes to play a limited-overs match, the shortened version of modern cricket.
(ii) In cricket, the length of the pitch is specified 22 yards but the size or shape of the ground is not fixed. Most other team sports, such as hockey and football lay down the dimensions of the playing area but cricket does not. The playing field can vary from oval to circular. Both the peculiarities of test cricket are shaped by its historical beginnings as a village game.
Cricket’s connection with a rural past can be seen in the length of a test match. Originally, cricket matches had no time limit. The reason behind it is that the rhythms of village life were slower and cricket’s rules were made before the Industrial Revolution. In post industrial period, people were paid by the hour or the day or the week.
Cricket’s vagueness about the size of a cricket ground is a result of its village origins. Cricket was originally played in country of commons which were unfenced. The size of the commons varied from one village to another. So there were no designated boundaries or boundary hits. Even after boundaries were written into the laws of cricket, their distance from the wicket was not specified.

Q2. Describe one way in which in the nineteenth century, technology brought about a change in equipment and give one example where no change in equipment took place.

Show Answer


Ans. One way in which the 19th century technology brought about a change in equipment:
The invention of vulcanised rubber led to the introduction of pads in 1848 and protective gloves soon afterwards. Helmets were made of metal and synthetic lightweight materials.
One example where no change in equipment took place.
Even today both bat and ball are handmade, not industrially manufactured. The material of the bat changed slightly over time. Once it was cut out of simple piece of wood. Now it consists of two pieces, the blade which is made out of the wood of the willow tree and the handle which is made out of cane.

Q3. Explain why cricket became popular in India and the West Indies. Can you give reasons why it did not become popular in countries in South America?

Show Answer


Ans. Both India and the West Indies were a part of the British colonial power. In these colonies, cricket was established as a popular sport by white settlers and local elites. The local elites wanted to copy the habits of their colonial masters. They viewed the game as a sign of superior social and rural status. In the West Indies, the game became hugely popular. The Caribbean success at cricket became a measure of racial equality and political progress. At the time of their independence many of the political leaders of Caribbean countries saw in the game a chance for self-respect and international standing. When the West Indies won its first test series against England in 1950, it was celebrated as a national achievement, as a way of demonstrating the West Indians were the equals of white Englishmen.
Cricket did not become popular in the countries of South America because these countries were not a part of the British colonial empire. It remained a colonial game limited to countries that had once been part of the British empire. Moreover, the pre-industrial oddness of cricket made it a hard game to export. It took root only in countries that the British ruled.

Q4. Give brief explanations for the following:
• The Parsis were the first Indian community to set up a cricket club in India.
• Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Pentangular tournament.
• The name of the ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to the International Cricket Conference.
• The shift of the ICC headquarters from London to Dubai.

Show Answer


Ans.
• The Parsis were the first Indian community that started playing cricket in Bombay. They founded the First Indian Cricket Club because their interest in trade brought them into close contact with the British. They were also the first Indian community to westernise.
• The Pentangular tournament was played among five teams–the Europeans, the Parsis, the Hindus, the Muslims and the Indian Christians. The tournament was based on racial and communal foundations. Mahatma Ghandi condemned it as a communally divisive competition that was out of place in a time when nationalists were trying to unite India’s diverse population.
• The name of the ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to the International Cricket Conference because of the decolonisation of Britain. This process led to the decline of British influence in trade, commerce, military affairs, international politics and inevitably, sporting matters.
• The technology of satellite television and the worldwide reach of multi-national television companies created a global market for cricket. Matches in Sydney could now be watched live in Surat. This simple fact shifted the balance of power in cricket. Since India had the largest viewership for the game amongst the cricket-playing nations and the largest market in the cricketing world, the game’s centre of gravity shifted to South Asia. This shift was symbolised by the shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to tax-free Dubai.

Q5. How have advances in technology, especially television technology, affected the development of contemporary cricket?

Show Answer


Ans. Kerry Packer, an Australian television tycoon, saw the money-making potential of cricket as a televised sport. He used his innovative ideas to make cricket more attractive to television audiences. This changed the nature of the game. Coloured dress, protective helmets, field restrictions, cricket under lights, became a standard part of the post-Packer game. Crucially, Packer made it clear that cricket was a marketable game, which could generate huge revenues. Cricket boards became rich by selling television rights to television companies. Television channels made money by selling television sports to companies who were happy to pay huge sums of money to air commercials for their products to cricket’s captive television audience.
Television coverage changed cricket. It expanded the audience for the game by beaming cricket into small towns and villages. It also broadened cricket’s social base. Children who lived outside the big cities, could now watch and learn by imitating their heroes.
The technology of satellite television and the worldwide reach of multinational television companies created a global market for cricket. This helped shift the balance of power in cricket from Britain to South Asia. This shift was symbolised by the shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to Dubai. As a result of this shift the privileged position of England and Australia was scrapped in favour of equal membership.
Many innovations in cricket technique in recent years have mainly come from the practice of sub-continental teams in countries like India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Pakistan has pioneered two great advances in bowling-the doosra and the ‘reverse swing’.

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.

IBPS Clerk 2017 Video Lecturesx