Glimpses of india
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
I. A BAKER FROM GOA
ORAL COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. What are the elders in Goa nostalgic about?
Ans. The elders in Goa are nostalgic about the Portuguese and their famous loaves of bread. Those eaters of loaves might have died but the makers are still there.
2. Is bread-making still popular in Goa? How do you know?
Ans. Yes, bread-making is still popular in Goa. This is clear from the fact that there are still the mixers, the moulders and those who bake the loaves. The age-old furnaces still exist. The fire in the furnaces has not yet been extinguished. The thud and jingle of the baker’s bamboo can still be heard in certain places.
3. What is the baker called?
Ans. The baker is called pader in Goa.
4. When would the baker come everyday? Why did the children run to meet him?
Ans. The baker used to come everyday when the writer was a child. He used to come at least twice a day. The children ran to meet and greet him. They did so because they longed for the bread bangles.
ORAL COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. Match the following. What is a must
(i) as marriage gifts? ___ cakes and bolinhas
(ii) for a party or a feast? ___ sweet bread called bol
(iii) for a daughter’s engagement? ___bread
(iv) for Christmas? ___sandwiches
(i) as marriage gifts? ___ sweet bread called bol
(ii) for a party or a feast? ___bread
(iii) for a daughter’s engagement? ___sandwiches
(iv) for Christmas? ___ cakes and bolinhas
2. What did the bakers wear: (i) in the Portuguese days? (ii) when the author was young?
Ans. In the Portuguese days, the bakers wore a peculiar dress known as the Kabai. It was a single-piece long frock reaching down to the knees. When the author was young, the bakers wore a shirt and trousers which were shorter than full-length ones and longer than half pants.
3. Who invites the comment—”he is dressed like a pader”? Why?
Ans. Anyone who wears a half-pant which reaches just below the knees invites the comment that he is dressed like a pader! This is because a pader used to dress like that.
4. Where were the monthly accounts of the baker recorded?
Ans. The monthly accounts of the bakers were recorded on some wall with a pencil.
5. What does a jackfruit like appearance’ mean?
Ans. It means that the bakers were plumpy like jackfruit. They were quite fat and healthy.
THINKING ABOUT THE TEXT
1. Which of these statements are correct?
(i) The pader was an important person in the village in old times.
(ii) Paders still exist in Goan villages.
(iii) The Paders went away with the Portuguese.
(iv) The Paders continue to wear a single-piece long frock.
(v) Bread and cakes were an integral part of Goan life in the old days.
(vi) Traditional bread-baking is still a very profitable business.
(vii) Paders and their families starve in the present times.
Ans. (i) correct (ii) correct (iii) incorrect (iv) incorrect
(v) correct (vi) incorrect (vii) incorrect
2. Is bread an important part of Goan life? How do you know this?
Ans. Yes, bread is an important part of Goan life. It is needed
for marriage gifts, for parties and feasts. Bread is needed by a mother for preparing sandwiches on the occasion of her daughter’s engagement.
3. Tick the right answer. What is the tone of the author when he says the following?
(i) The thud and the jingle of the traditional baker’s bamboo can still be heard in some places. (nostalgic, hopeful, sad)
(ii) Maybe the father is not alive but the son still carries on the family profession. (nostalgic, hopeful, sad)
(iii) I still recall the typical fragrance of those loaves. (nostalgic, hopeful, naughty)
(iv) The tiger never brushed his teeth. Hot tea could wash and clean up everything so nicely, after all. (naughty, angry-, funny)
(v) Cakes and bolinhcts are a must for Christmas as well as other festivals. (sad, hopeful, matter-of-fact)
(vi) The baker and his family never starved. They always looked happy and prosperous. (matter-of-fact, hopeful, sad)
Ans. (i) nostalgic (ii) hopeful (iii) nostalgic
(iv) funny (v) matter-of-fact (vi) matter-of-fact
I. In the extract, the author talks about traditional bread-baking during his childhood days. Complete the following table with the help of the clues on the left. Then write a paragraph about the author’s childhood days.
|Clues||Author’s childhood days|
|the way bread was baked|
|the way the pader sold bread|
|what the pader wore|
|when the pader was paid|
|how the pader looked|
|Clues||Author’s childhood days|
|the way bread was baked||in the furnace as it is done today|
|the way the pader sold bread||hanging on the thud and bambur|
|what the pader wore||shirt and trousers|
|when the pader was paid||end of the month|
|how the pader looked||Like a friend|
We still have amongst us the mixers, the moulders and those who bake the loaves. The age-old time-tested furnaces still exist. The fire in the furnaces has not been extinguished. The baker comes with the `jhang, jhang’ sound made by his bamboo
staff. He placed his basket full of bread. He would deliver the loaves to the servant. The pader wore a shirt and trousers which were shorter than full length ones and longer than half-pants. When the pader was paid, he used to record it on some wall in pencil. The baker looked plumpy like a jackfruit.
II. 1. Compare the piece from the text (on the left below) with the other piece on Goan bakers (on the right). What makes the two texts so different? Are the facts the same? Do both writers give you a picture of the backer?
|Our elders are often heard reminiscing nostalgically about those good old Portuguese days, the Portuguese and their famous loaves of bread. Those eaters of loaves might have vanished but the makers are still there. We still have amongst us the mixers, the moulders and those who bake the loaves. Those age-old, time-tested furnaces still exist. The fire in the furnaces had not yet been extinguished. The thud and the jingle of the traditional baker’s bamboo, heralding his arrival in the morning, can still be heard in some places.|
May be the father is not alive but the son still carries on the family profession.
| used to say nostalgically that the Portuguese bread vanished with the paders. But the paders have managed to survive because they have perfected the art of door-to-door delivery service. The pader pick up the knowledge of bread making from traditions in the family. The leavened, oven-bakers bread is a gift of the Portuguese to India.|
[Adapted from Nanda Kumar Kamat’s The Unsung Lives of Goan Paders1
Ans. The two texts differ in the sense that the first tells about the age old practice and like of the paders while the second one tells about the present status of bread maker. However, both boxes tell the same fact. They are about the lift of paders.
2. Now find a travel brochure about a place you have visited. Look at the description in the brochure. Then write your own account, adding details from your own experience, to give the reader a picture of the place, rather than an impersonal, factual description.
Ans. Do yourself
1. In groups, collect information on how bakeries bake bread now and how the process has changed over time.
Ans. Classroom activity. Do yourself
2. There are a number of craft-based professions which are dying out. Pick one of the crafts below. Make a group presentation to the class about the skills required, and the possible reasons for the decline of the crafts. Can you think of ways to revive these crafts?
(i) Pottery (u) Dhurri (rug) weaving
(ii) Carpentry (vi) Making jute products
(iii) Batik work (vii) Embroidery
(iv) Bamboo weaving (viii) Handloom
Ans. Do yourself
THINKING ABOUT THE TEXT
1. Where is Coorg?
Ans. Coorg is midway between Mysore and the coastal town of Mangalore.
2. What is the story about the Kodauu people’s descent?
Ans. It is said that part of Alexander’s army moved south along the coast. They settled here when they found that the return was not possible. They married among the locals. So they are said to be of Greek origin. Since they wear `Kuffia’ like the Arabs, they are said to be of Arab origin.
3. What are some of the things you now know about
(i) the people of Coorg?
(ii) the main crop of Coorg?
(iii) the sports it offers to tourists?
(iv) the animals you are likely to see in Coorg?
(v) its distance from Bangalore, and how to get there?
Ans. (i) The people of Coorg are of Greek or Arab origin.
(ii) The main crop of Coorg is coffee.
(iii) It offers sports like river rafting, canoeing, rappelling, rock climbing, and mountain biking, etc.
(iv) The animals we are likely to see are macaques, squirrels, langurs, slender loris and elephants.
(v) The distance between Coorg and Banglore is about 280 km. One can reach Coorg by air, rail or road.
4. Here are six sentences with some words in italics. Find phrases from the text that have the same meaning. (Look in the paragraphs indicated)
(i) During monsoons it rains so heavily that tourists do not visit Coorg. (Para 2)
(ii) Some people say that Alexander’s army moved south along the coast and settled there. (para 3)
(iii) The Coorg people are always ready to tell stories of their sons’ and fathers’ valour. (para 4)
(iv) Even people who normally lead an easy and slow life get smitten by the high-energy adventure sports of Coorg. (para 6)
(v) The theory of the Arab origin is supported by the long coat with embroidered waist-belt they wear. (para 3)
(vi) Macaques, Malabar squirrels observe you carefully from the tree canopy. (para 7)
Ans. (i) During the monsoons it pours enough to keep visitors away.
(ii) As the story goes, Alexander’s army moved south along the coast and settled there.
(iii) The Coorg people are more than willing to recount numerous stories of valour related to their suns and fathers.
(iv) The most laidback people individuals become converts to the high energy sports of Coorg.
(v) The theory of the Arab origin draws support from the long coat with embroidered waist-belt they wear.
(vi) Macaques, Malabar squirrels keep a watchful eye from the tree canopies.
THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE
Certain words ‘go together’. Such ‘word friends’ are called collocations. The collocation of a word is ‘the company it keeps’.
For example, look at the paired sentences and phrases below. Which is a common collocation, and which one
is odd? Strike out the odd sentence or phrase.
(a) • How old are you? (b) • a pleasant person
• How young are you? • a pleasant pillow
Ans. Collocations are:
(a) How old are you? (b) a pleasant person
1. Here are some nouns from the text.
culture ,monks, surprise, experience ,weather ,tradition
Work with a partner and discuss which of the nouns can collocate with which of the adjectives given below. The first one has been done for you.
unique ,terrible, unforgettable, serious ,ancient ,wide, sudden
(i) culture: unique culture, ancient culture
(ii) monks: _________________________
(iii) surprise: ____________________________
(iv) experience: _________________________
(v) weather: _____________________________
(vi) tradition: __________________________
Ans. (ii) serious monks, unique monks
(iii) terrible surprise
(iv) unique experience, terrible experience, unforgettable experience, wide experience
(u) terrible weather
(ui) unique tradition, ancient tradition
2. Complete the following phrases from the text. For each phrase, can you find at least one other word that you fit into the blank?
(i) tales of_______ (ii) coastal_______
(iii) a piece of_______ (iv) evergreen _______
(u) plantations _______(vi) bridge________
You may add your own examples to this list.
Ans. (i) tales of valour (ii) coastal town
(iii) a piece of heaven (iv) evergreen rainforests
(v) coffee plantations (vi) rope bridge
(vii) wild elephants.
We can fit into the blanks the following words:
(i) tales of bravery (ii) coastal city
(iii) a piece of land (iu) evergreen fields
(u) tea plantations (vi) hanging bridge
(vii) wild animals
III. TEA FROM ASSAM
THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE
I. 1. Look at these words: upkeep, downpour, undergo, dropout, walk-in. They are built up from a verb (keep, pour, go, drop, walk) and an adverb or a particle (up, down, under, out, in).
Use these words appropriately in the sentences below. You may consult a dictionary.
(i)A heavy____ has been forecast due to low pressur in the Bay of Bengal.
(ii)Rakesh will____ major surgery tomorrow morning.
(iii)My brother is responsible for the_____ of our family property.
(iv)The____ rate for his accountancy course is very high.
(v) She went to the Enterprise Company to attend a ____ interview.
Ans. (i) downpour (ii) undergo (iii) upkeep
(i) dropout (v) walk-in
2. Now fill in the blanks in the sentences given below by combining the verb given in brackets with one of the words from the box as appropriate.
over by through out up down
(i) The Army attempted unsuccessfully to___ the Government. (throw)
(ii)Scientists are on the brink of a major ____ in cancer research. (break)
(iii)The State Government plans to build a ____for Bhubaneswar to speed up traffic on the main highway. (pass)
(iv)Gautama’s _____on life changed when he realised that the world is full of sorrow. (look)
(v) Rakesh seemed unusually ____after the game. (cast)
(i) overthrow (ii) breakthrough (iii) bypass
(iv) outlook (v) downcast
I. Notice how these —ing and —ed adjectives are used.
|(a) Chess is an interesting game||I am very interested in chess.|
|(b) Going trekking in the Himalayas this summer is an exciting idea.||We are very excited about the trek|
|(c) Are all your school books this boring?||He was bored as he had no friends there.|
The —ing adjectives show the qualities that chess, trekking, or these books have: they cause interest, excitement, or boredom in you. The —ed 1 —en adjectives show your mental state, or your physical state: how you feel in response to ideas, events or things.
1. Think of suitable —ing or —ed adjectives to answer the following questions. You may also use words from those given above.
How would you describe
(i) a good detective serial on television?______
(ii) a debate on your favourite topic ‘Homework Should Be Banned’?______
(iii) how you feel when you stay indoors due to incessant rain? ______
(iv) how you feel when you open a present? ______
(v) how you feel when you watch your favourite programme on television? ______
(vi) the look on your mother’s face as you waited in aqueue’? ______
(vii) how you feel when tracking a tiger in a tiger reserve forest? ______
(viii) the story you have recently read, or a film you have seen? ______
Ans. (i) a good detective serial on television? interesting
(ii) a debate on your favourite topic ‘Homework Should Be Banned’? exciting
(iii) how you feel when you stay indoors due to incessant rain? bored
(iv) how you feel when you open a present? excited
(v) how you feel when you watch your favourite programme on television? excited I interested
(vi) the look on your mother’s face as you waited in a queue? boring
(vii) how you feel when tracking a tiger in a tiger reserve forest? excitim
(viii) the story you have recently read, or a film you have seen? boring
2. Now use the adjectives in the exercise above, as appropriate, to write a paragraph about Coorg.
Ans. Do yourself:
SPEAKING AND WRITING
1. Read the following passage about tea.
India and tea are so intertwined together that life without the brew is unimaginable. Tea entered our life only in the mid-nineteenth century when the British started plantations in Assam and Darjeeling! In the beginning though, Indians shunned the drink as they thought it was a poison that led to umpteen diseases. Ironically, tea colonised Britain where it became a part of their social diary and also led to the establishment of numerous tea houses.Today, scientific research across the world has attempted to establish the beneficial qualities of tea—a fact, the Japanese and the Chinese knew anyway from ancient times, attributing to it numerous medicinal properties.
!Source: ‘History: Tea Anytime’ by .Ranjit Biswas from Literary Review, The Hindu, 1 October 20061 Collect information about tea, e.g. its evolution as a drink, its beneficial qualities. You can consult an encyclopedia or visit Internet websites. Then form groups of five and play the following roles: Imagine a meeting of a tea planter, a sales agent, a tea lover (consumer), a physician and a tea-shop owner. Each person in the group has to put forward his/her views about tea. You may use the following words and phrases
• I feel… • It is important to know…
• I disagree with you… • I think that tea…
• I would like you to know… • I agree with…
• It is my feeling… • I suggest…
• May I know why you… • I am afraid…
2. You are the sales executive of a famous tea company and you have been asked to draft an advertisement for the product. Draft the advertisement using the information you collected for the role play. You can draw pictures or add photographs and make your advertisement colourful.
Ans. Do yourself