IN-TEXT QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q1. page 5.
Ans. See fig 3. textbook page 5. Then explain why the artist has portrayed the nobleman as the spider and the peasant as the fly.
Ans. The figure clearly depicts the vicious social set up that existed in France during the 18th century. A spider feeds on the fly. Just like the spider, the nobles in the 18th century France lived on the labour of the peasants. The peasants had to pay feudal dues to these nobles. They also rendered all kinds of services to them.
Q2. page 6.
Fill in the blank boxes in fig 4. given on textbook page 6 with appropriate terms from among the following: Food riots, scarcity of grain, increased number of deaths, rising food prices, weaker bodies.
Q3. page 7.
What message is Young trying to convey in source A? Whom rtrus he mean when he speaks of ‘slaves’? Who is he criticising? What dangers does he sense in the situation of 1787 ?
Ans. A social set up which is based on inequalities and injustice is bound to collapse or later. When young people. He is criticising those who belonged to privileged class i.e. clergy and nobles. He senses dangers of violence or riot.
Q4. page 8.
Representatives of the Third Estate take the oath raising their arms in the direction of Badly, the President of the Assembly, standing on a table in the centre. Do you think that during the actual event Badly would have stood with his back to the assembled deputies? What could have been David’s intention in placing Bailly, (fig. 5) the way he has done?
No, I don’t think that Bailly would have stood with his back to the assembled deputies during the actual event.
David, through his painting, wants to make it clear that the Constitution of 1791 did nothing in the favour of the common mass. Inspite of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, the right to vote was not given to the common people of France. They were still the passive citizens. The wealthy class of people continued to avail all the privileges.
Q5. page 13.
(i) Identify the symbols in box 1 (page 12) which stand for liberty, equality and fraternity.
Ans. Symbols stand for liberty –
• Tfrheee. broken chain stands for the act of becoming
• Phrygian cap was worn by a slave on becoming free.
Symbols stand for equality –
• The winged woman is the personification of the law.
• The Law Tablet refers to the fact that the law is the same for all and all are equal before it.
Symbols stand for fraternity –
• The bundle of rods or fasces refers to the fact that strength lies in unity.
(ii) Explain the meaning of the painting of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (fig. 8, pg. 11) by reading only the symbols.
• The figure on the right represents France.
• The figure on the left represents the law.
• The Law Tablet symbolizes equality before law.
(iii) Compare the political rights which the constitution of 1791 gave to the citizens with articles 1 and 6 of the declaration (source C, page 11). Are the two documents consistent? Do the two documents convey the same idea?
Yes, the two documents are definitely consistent. These two documents convey the same idea, i.e., human beings are born equal and all citizens are equal before the law.
(iv) Which groups of French society would have gained from the constitution of 1791? Which groups would have had reason to be dissatisfied? What developments does Marat (source B, pg. 11) anticipate in the future?
The propertied class of French society would have gained from the Constitution of 1791. Peasants, workers and women would have had reason to be dissatisfied. Marat anticipated that the common mass of France would show its dissatisfaction by taking retaliatory action in future.
Q6. page 15.
Look carefully at the painting (fig. 10, page 15) and identify the objects which are political symbols you saw in Box 1, page 12 (broken chain, red cap, fasces, Chapter of the Declaration of Rights). The pyramid stands for equality, often represented by a triangle. Use the symbols to interpret the painting. Describe your impressions of the female figure of liberty.
The scroll that the woman is holding in her hand is probably the declaration of rights of women and citizen. The female figure of liberty signifies that women are equal to men. Hence, they should enjoy the same rights.
Q7. page 16.
Compare the views of Desmoulins and Robespierre. How does each one understand the use of state force? What does Robespierre mean by ‘the war of liberty against tyranny’? How does Desmoulins perceive liberty?
Robespierre justifies his reign of terror. He believes in the policy of severe control and punishment. He poses himself as the saviour of the ideals of the revolution and
the republic by adopting severity. Desmoulins on the other hand views liberty as freedom to do anything which does not harm anyone. He believes in the principles of reason, equality and justice.
Q8. page 18.
Describe the persons represented in fig. 12, page 18- their actions, their postures, the objects they are carrying. Look carefully to see whether all of them come from the same social group. What symbols has the artist included in the image? What do they stand for? Do the actions of the women reflect traditional ideas of how women were effected to behave in public? What do you think: does the artist sympathise with the womens’ activities or is he critical of them?
The persons represented in the figure are Parisian women. Their actions and the objects they are carrying all show that they are in violent and aggressive mood. All of them come from the same social group with the same objective. The artist has used the symbols like pitchforks as weapons. The drum indicates proclamation of war. The balance scale on top signifies that both men and women are equal. No. The activities of the women do not reflect traditional ideas about them. The artist, so far I think, sympathises with the women and their cause.
Q9. page 20.
Compare the manifesto drafted by Olympia de Gouges (Source F, page 20) with the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (source C, page 11).
The manifesto drafted by Olympic de Gouges talks about women and their rights to be treated equally with men. On the other hand, the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen talks about men only.