Forest and Wildlife Resources – Class 10 X – Geography Social Science – Textbook NCERT Solutions

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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

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Q1. Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion
(b) Large scale developmental projects
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation

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Ans. (i). c

(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Chipko Movement
(d) Demarcation of wildlife sanctuaries.

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Ans. (ii). d

Q2. Match the following animals with their category of existence

Animals/plants.Category of existence
Blackbuck
Asiatic elephant
Andaman wild .pig
Himalayan brown bear
Pink head duck
Extinct
Rare
Endangered
Vulnerable
Endemic

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Ans.

Animals/plants.Category of  existence
Blackbuck
Asiatic elephant
Andaman wild .pig
Himalayan brown bear
Pink head duck
Endangered
Vulnerable
Endemic
Rare
Extinct


Q3. Match the following:

Reserve.
forests
Reserve.
forestsUnclassed
forests
Other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities

Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources.

Forest lands protected from any further depletion.

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Ans.

Reserve.
forests
Reserve.
forests
Unclassed
forests
Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources.

Forest lands protected from any further depletion.

Other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities


Q4 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What is biodiverstty? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
Or
Analyse any four reasons for the depletion of forest resources in India.

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Ans.
(i) Biodiversity means inherited variation within species, the variety of species in an area, and the variety of habitat types within a landscape. In other words, it refers to the variety of living organisms. It is an interconnected web in which every organism has a role. Various organisms play different roles of producers, consumers and decomposers. It is on these roles that other organisms, including humans, depend for their existence. Humans along with the other living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which they are only a part and very much dependent on this system for their existence. For example, the plants, animals and other micro-organisms re-create the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produces our food. Forests also play a key role in the ecological system as they are the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.

(ii) Human activities have greatly affected tt depletion of flora and fauna.
(a) Expansion of the commercial and  scientific  forestry and mining activities: During te, colonial period due to the expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities Indian forest depleted to an extent.

(b) Agricultural Expansion: Even after independence, agricultural expansion continue,, to be one of the major causes of depletion t)l forest resources. Between 1951 and 1980 owl 26,200 sq. km. of forest area was converted into agricultural land especially in the northeaster] t and central India for shifting cultivation (jhum) also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.

(c) Enrichment Plantation: It was a plantation it which single commercially valuable species wa,, widely planted and other species reduced.

(d) Development Projects: Large-scale develop ment projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Projects still in continuation like the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh have swallowed up 40,000 hectares of forests.

(e) Mining: Mining is another important facto’ behind deforestation. The Buxa Tiger Reserve West Bengal is threatened by the ongoing, dolomite mining. It has disturbed the natural habitat of many species and blocked Ult. migration route of several others including thr great Indian elephant.

(f) Unequal Access to Resources: The wealthiest 5% of Indian society causes more ecological damage because of the amount they consume than the poorest 25 per cent and share-, minimum responsibilities for environmental well-being.

(g) Habitat destruction: Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation, enviroi mental pollution, poisoning and forest fires are factors, which have led to the decline in biodiversity.


Q5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India.
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conservInn forest and wildlife.

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Ans.
(i) Forests in India are home to a number of communities. These communities have a complex relationship with the flora and fauna around them. In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve these habitats along with government officials.
(a) In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.

(b) In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and openly rejecting government involvement. The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the `Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting, and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.

(c) Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of God and Goddesses). These patches of forest or parts of large forests have been left untouched by the local people and any interference with them is banned.

(d) Even trees are preserved in name of worship. The Mundas and the Santhals of Chhotanagpur region worship rnahua and kadamba trees, and the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees during weddings. To many of us, peepal and banyan trees are considered sacred.

(e) Troops of macaques and langurs are found around several temples. They are fed daily and treated as a part of temple devotees. In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan, herds of blackbuck (chinkara), nilgai and peacocks can be seen as an integral part of the community and nobody harms them.

(ii) The famous Chipko Movement in the Himalayas and Joint Forest Management (JFM)
programme offer good examples for involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.

(a) The famous Chipko Movement in the Himalaya., has successfully resisted deforestation in several areas. It has also shown that communil afforestation with indigenous species can he enormously successful.

(b) Attempts have been made to revive ill( traditional conservation methods. At the sailif time new methods of ecological farming have also been developed. Farmers and citizen., groups like the ‘Beef Bachao Andolan’ in Tell’ I and Navdanya have shown that adequate level.. of diversified crop production without the tis( of synthetic chemicals are possible as well economically viable.

(c) In our country Joint Forest Management. (JFM) programme offers a nice example for involvinp, local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. JFM depend., on the formation of local (village) institution., that undertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the foresl department. In return the members of then( communities are given the right III intermediary benefits such as non-timber forest produces and share in the Umbel harvested by ‘successful protection’.

 

 


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