Abul Fazal was the celebrated Mughal court poet and councillor of Akbar. Works : Akbar-nama; Ain-i-Akbari.

  Al-beruni was a celebrated historian who visited India in company with the armies of Mahmud Ghazni.

 Alexander the Great  (356-323 B.C.) was king of Macedon (Greece) who set out for mighty military exploits and invaded India in 327 B.C. He reached up to the Beas from where he retreated as his home-sick army refused to proceed further.

 Alexander Eiffel
French Engineer who built the Eiffel Tower and the locks on the Panama Canal.

 Albert Einstein
 German mathematical physicist and one of the greatest of all men of science.

(384-322 B.C.)
  was a Greek philosopher, artist, poet, and thinker. He was the founder of a famous school of philosophy.

 Adolf Hitler
 Leader of the NAZI party, he led Germany into conquering much of Europe in 2nd World War, responsible for the genocide of 6 million Jews. In 1945. he committed suicide as Russians took Berlin.

(287-212 B.C.)
 Greek mathematician, physicist and inventor made many discoveries in mechanics and invented the Archimedean screw. Killed during siege of Syracuse by Romans.

(450-385 B.C.)
 Greek comic dramatist.

Dr. Alfred Nobel
Swedish inventor of dynamite in his will he left money for the annual prizes named after him (for work done the benefit of marking in physics, chemistry, physiology and medicine. liters turc and peace).

  Baden Powell
was founder of the Boy Scout movement in 1908 and Girl Guides in 1910.

 Beethovenone of the world’s greatest musicians and composers. He became deaf at the age of 40 and despite this handicap, he wrote many memorable symphonies, songs, sonatas and concertos. Died at the age of 56

  Benjamin Franklin
American Statesman, philosopher and scientist; played an important part in framing the constitution of the U.S.A. invented the lightning conductor

 Benito Mussolini
 Fascist dictator of Italy, 1922-1943.

  Cleopatra (69-30 B.C.)famous Egyptian Queen whose beauty fascinated Julius Caesar whom she accompanied to Rome. She is known for her romance with Antony dramatised by Shakespeare in his love tragedy.

  Lord Clive
came to India as a clerk in the East India Company. He showed such remarkable military genius that he became comrnander-in-Chief. He defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah supported by the French in the Battle of Massey in 1757. Returned to England in 1760; his later years were marked by mental disturbance and ultimately he committed suicide.

 Charles Spencer Chaplin (1889-1977)The most famous of all film comedians.

 Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, his dominions stretched from the Atlantic to the Danube and Tibet.

 Charles V
 Holy Roman Emperor who ruled Austria, the Netherlands and Spain.

  Claudius Ptolemy
Greek astronomer and geographer, born in Alexandria; according to the Ptolemaic system, the earth was the center of the universe and the heavenly bodies revolved around it.

  Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer in Spanish Service; landed on main land of South America in 1498 and discovered Trinidad in 1502.

(c. 551-479)
 The most celebrated of the Chinese philosophers.

Count Leo Tolstoy
Great Russian novelist: author of War and Peace. generally regarded as the greatest novel over written.

Charles Darwin
English naturalist whose Origin of the Species first set out the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.

French religious reformer who preached his severe doctrine (Calvinism). In Geneva, where he created a Protestant republic.

the greatest of Italian poets. Author of Divina Commedia.

Dalhousie, Lord :was the British Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856. His period of office was known for extensive annexations and as far as the consolidation of British power in India is concerned, he ranks with Wellesley and Hastings.

 English statesman and novelist. Became Prime Minister in 1868. He contributed greatly to the building up of a great Empire.

(1038-970 B.C.)
 King who united Israelites in Canaan.

  EdisonAmerican inventor. Born in Ohio, he became first a newsboy and then a telegraph operator. He invented an automatic repeater for telegraphic messages, phonograph, incandescent lamp.

 34th President of the USA Supreme Commander of all the Allied armies in the west during the second world war. He introduced “Eisenhower Doctrine” in 1957, a policy of giving aid to Middle Eastern countries against international communist aggression.

  Elizabeth I
Queen of England; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Spanish Armaj was defeated during her reign. Her reign is famous for development in literature, colonisation and naval power. Shakespeare lived in her time.

(342-270 B.C.)
Greek philosopher; founder of Epicurean philosophy which taught that virtues should be followed because they led to happiness

  Erasmus (1466-1536)Dutch scholar and philosopher. one of the great figures of the Renaissance.

(330-260 B.C.)
 Greek mathematician who laid the foundations of modern geometry.

(480-406 B.C.)
 Great Athenian tragic dramatist.

  Fa-hienThe first Chinese pilgrim who came to India during the reign of Chandragupta Vikramaditya.

 Fabius Maximus
(d.203 B.C.)
 The Roman dictator who saved Rome from Hannibal by deliberately avoiding battle. From this policy comes the term ‘Fabian tactics.

German physicist, inventor of the method of reading a thermometer which bears his name.

  Faraday (1791-1867)English physicist and chemist, founder of the science of electro-magnetism.

 St. Gregroy
 Founder of the Armenian Church; his festival is 9th March.

 Gregory XIII
 Pope who introduced the Gregorian calender.

 Elizabethan sea-captain who, with his one ship. the Revenge, fought a fleet of Spanish warships in 1591 and died on the deck of the San Pablo.

 Gagarin Yuri Gagarin was the Russian cosmonaut and the first spaceman of the world. He was launched into space in Vostok-1 on April 12, 1961 and brought back safely after a flight in space. Died in plane crash on March 27, 1968.

  Galileo (1564-1642)Italian scientist. He was professor of mathematics. He is known for invention of telescope.

 Garibaldi (1807-1882) The famous Italian soldier and patriot who was condemned to death in 1834 for being concerned in a plot to seize a Government vessel, but escaped to South America. Later he returned to Italy and became head of a great volunteer army, intent upon liberating Italy.

 Herod the Great
(73-4 B.C.)
 King of Judea under the Romans: to him is attributed the massacre of the innocents.

(485-425 B.C.)
Greek historian, called “the father of history”.

Discoverer of the planet Uranus and the satellites of Saturn.

(460-370 B.C.)
 Greek physician; ‘The father of medicine’. Rules of conduct for doctors are still based on his Hippocratic Oath.

  Hiun-TsangChinese pilgrim who visited India during the reign of King Harsha (606-647 AD.). He has left interesting records of the conditions in India at that time.

 Homer (850 B.C.) famous Greek epic poet. Author of the classics the Iliad and the Odyssey.

(247-183 B.C.)
Carthaginian general crossed the Alps into Italy where he is unbeaten for 15 years.

 Hardicanute (1019-42) : son of Canute, the Great, and the last Danish king of England: imposed the tax known as Danegeld.

Haroun-al-Rashid (763-809)The most famous Fdtalipha of Baghdad; hero of the Arabian Nights.

Ibn battutaA South African scholar and traveller who visited India during 1333 AD, He spent 8 years in India and has written about the reign of Mohammad Tiighlaq.

Innocent III
Powerful Pope who initiated the 4th Crusade.

Ivan the Terrible
First Czar of Russia, who earned his name by his cruel treatment of his subjects

J.F. Kennedy
 President of the United States from 1961 until his assassination at. Dallas, Texas, in November 1963.

Jesus Christ (c.4B.C.-A.D. 30 or 33).The founder of Christianity: bone at Bethlehem, the first-born of His mother Mary. According to Mathew, birth was miraculous and Joseph was His foster-father. He learned his father’s trade of carpentry at Nazareth, and began His mission when hr was about thirty. A summary of His teaching is found in the Semmort ot the Mount.

Joan of Arc (1412-31)the girl whose heroism inspired the French It to drive the English out of Oreleans and enabled Charles to be proclaimed king. She was burnt as a heretic at Rouen.

Julius Caesar
(100-44 B.C.)
Roman general known for invasion 01 Gaul and Britain. Defeated Pompey in the Civil Gaul Wan His assassination by his trusted friend Bruttus is considered the most famous classic be trayal.

German astronomer who worked out the laws of planetary motion.

 Kemal Ataturk builder of modern Turkey. He was a fine soldier. He defended the Dardanelles against the British in 1915 and drove the Greeks out of Turkey in 1922. He was President of the Turkish Republic and vintual dictator 1923-1938.

 Lamarck French naturalist, author of a theory of the evolution of animals, known as Lamarckism.

French chemist who gave oxygen its name and was the first to establish that combustion is a form of chemical action; guillotined during the French Revolution.

  Lloyd GeorgeHe was Prime Minister of Britain (1916-1922). His resource-fulness; and diving power brought about the defeat of Germany. He was one of those primarily responsible for the Versailles peace settlement.

 Louis XVI (1754-1793) The king of France who was executed in 1793 after the French Revolution which had taken place in 1789.

 Leonardo da Vinci one of the greatest all-round geniuses the world has known: painter, architect, sculptor, scientist. engineer and musician. Famed as painter of the Last Supper, Mona Lisa and other great works

  Lenin (Russian) Nikolai Lenin (1870-1924) was founder of Bolshevik communism and by far the greatest single driving force behind the Soviet revolution of October-November 1917. His father was a schoolmaster.

Inventor of the first practical method of wireless telegraphy.

Maria Theresa
Empress of Austria. Queen of Bohemia and Hungary

Marie Antoniette
Daughter of Maria Theresa, and wife of Louis XVI of France.

Maccini (1805-1872)Italian patriot who was compelled to leave the country while endeavouring to secure independence of Italy. He was back in Rome in 1848 and was elected dictator of the Roman Republic. He could not hold the position for long and when France occupied Rome he was again driven to England. He, however, lived to see a unified Italy.

MichaelangeloThe renowned Italian artist, painter, sculptor, architect and poet; one of the greatest geniuses

Montessori Madam
Italian educator and originator of the method of education known as Montessori system

A Florentine historian and diplomat. Author of “The Prince”.

MagellanCommanded the first expedition in 1519 to soil round the world. Discovered passages to the Pacific from the Atlantic through Straits later on named after him.

Mao Tse-TungChairman of Communist China (People’s Republic ul China) who died at the age of 82 was inspiration behind the great comnot fist revolution that transformed China and sent shock waves throughout the world

Marco Polo
famous Venetian traveller and explorer: the first European to visit China; made journeys through China, India and other Eastern countries and published a record of his wanderings

Martin Luthar
Great German religious reformer who lived to see the principles of Reformation widely established.

Newton (1642-1727)Sir Issac Newton English physical scientist and mathematician is generally known as world’s greatest man of science. Hr achieved immortal fame for his work on the nature of white light, the calculus and the law of gravitation.

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)Great French statesman and sot cher who rose to be the Emperor of post-Revolution France. He won series of splendid victories against England, Russia and Austria in 1805 but was completely defeated in the battle of Waterloo in June, 1815 and exiled to St. Helena where he died six years later.

Pythagoras (582-507 B.C.)Greek scientist and mathematician to him is attributed the discovery of the multiplication table, the decimal sys tern and the square on the hypotenuse.

PhidiasSpecially famous for his works in gold, ivory and bronze. Known for the sculptures in the British Musemn The Elgin Marbles.

Philip of Macedonia (382-336 B.C.)Father of Alexander the Great and king of Macedonia.

Spanish painter His work is to be found in public galleries and private collections all over the world.

Plato (427-347 B.C.)The renowned Greek philosopher. His Dialogue, and Republic are among the greatest ancient works. He was Socrates ills ciple and Aristotle’s teacher.

Lord Rippon Governor-General of India
Famous for repeal of Vernacular Press Act ; the first Census of India in 1881 was taken in his time; Factory Act; policy of free trade.

 Robespierre (1758-1794) Enthusiastic leader of the Jacobian party who took active part in the French Revolution.

Roger Bacon (1214-1294)Inventor of Gun Powder and founder of experimental science; man of remarkable gifts and inventive power.

Roosevelt Franklin
D. Roosevelt was the 32nd President of the U.S.A. He was a great American statesman who served as President from 1933 till his death, being the first President to be elected for more than two terms. “His war-time meetings with Churchill and Stalin, and his energetic prosecution of the second World War were considered as the most important features of his foreign policy.

Rousseau (1712-1778)Famous for his two remarkable works Confessions arid Le Contest Social which gave French a new field of thought and laid down principles of government and conduct which bore fruit in the French Revolution.

Sigmund Freud
was originator of psychoanalysis. He was bom of Jewish parents and from 1860 lived at Vienna until, following the Nazi occupation in 1938, he migrated to London. Some of his famous works are The Interpretation by Dreams, The Psychopathology of Every day Life, The Ego and the Id.

(470-399 B.C.)
Greek philosopher, whose teachings arc (mown from the writings of his pupils, Xenophon and Plato. He taught people to think carefully and logically. Charged with corrupting the morals of the young, he was condemned to die by drinking hemlock.

(10th c.B.C.)
son of David. ruler of Israel and Judah.

(338-558 B.C.)
Great Athenian law-giver.

(495-406 B.C.)
Popular Anthenian dramatist author of Antigone. Electra, Oedipus.

Soviet statesman. He was leader of the Russian People for nearly thirty years. He was an active revolutionary from the age of 17 and took an important part In civil war 1917 and became an outstanding figure in Russia after the death of Lenin. He assumed military leadership against the German invasion, June 1941. After his death, he was severely criticised by the Russian leaders.

Sun Yat-senThe founder and the first President of the Chinese Re public, 1912. In 1905, founded the China Revolutionary League in Europr and Japan and played a prominent part in the 1911 revolution.

 Trotsky Russian Revolutionary; one of the leaders of Bolshevist revolution; assassinated in exile in Mexico.

 Vasco da Gama A Portuguese sailor who, in 1498, rounded the Cape of Good Hope and succeeded in reaching the port of Calicut.

One of the greatest of French philosophers and writers. Author of Essays on the Morals; Spirit of Nations.

 Warren Hastings He was the first Governor-General (1774-1785) in India during the British reign. His period is known for Regulating Act, 1773; First Marhatta War (1775-1782) and Pit Cs India Act, 1784 to improve the Indian administration.

 Walt Disney American cartoonist; treater of Mickey Mouse and other cartoons shown on the screen and ‘True Life Adventures’.

 Woodrow Wilson
 American President 1913-1921; famous for his fourteen points and largely responsible for the setting up of the League of Nations.

William WilberforceA distinguished agitator and orator against slave trade during the reign of George III.

(430-355 B.C.)
Greek historian and general pupil of Socrates.

(519-465 B.C.)
King of Persia

ZoroasterPersian prophet; lived about the seventh century B.C. Parsis of India are his followers.

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