Abialyabai  was the famous Ilolkar queen. She was widowed daughter-in-law of Malhar Rao Holkar, the virtual ruler of Malwa. After the death of Malhar Rao, Ahialyabai ruled the state with great skill and understanding.

 Akbar (1556-1605)  He was the greatest of the Mughal Emperors in India. He founded a new religion Din-i-Etahi. He is known for reforms in land revenue administration, religious toleration, abolition of pilgrim tax and Jazia.

 Albuquerque  was the real founder of the Portuguese Empire in the East. He conquered Goa in 1510 and made it his capital. He died in 1515.

 Asvagho?a Buddhist Philosopher and musician. He was the spiritual adviser of the Kushan emperor Kanishka.

 Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Mughal emperor of India, he was son of Shahjahan. He got power by acting against his father and brothers. After his death, the Mughal empire broke up.

  Aurobindo Ghosh
 Politician, philosopher, poet and yogi; passed I.C.S. 1890 first editor of Bande Mutaram established an ashram: in Pondicherry.

(476-520 A.D.)
 after whom India's first scientific satellite has been named, was a great Indian astronomer and mathematician. Among his important contributions are the recognition of the importance of the movement of the earth round the sun, determination of the physical parameters of various celestial bodies, such as diameter of the earth and the moon. He laid the foundation of algebra and was responsible for pointing out the importance of 'zero".

(273-236 B.C.)
Indian Emperor, grandson of Chandra Gupta. He denounced war, embraced and preache Buddhism after the battle of Kalinga.

 Mrs. Annie Besant
 President of the Theosophical Society, founder of the Home Rule League (1915-16) in India, was elected President of Indian National Congress.

Amir KhusrowUrdu poet who laid the foundation of Urdu poetry, a contemporary, of Ala-Ud-Din Khilji, his 750th birth anniversary was celebrated in 1975.

Ararita PritamThe noted Punjabi poetess and novelist is the recipient of the Bharatiya Janapith Award for 1981.

B.R. Ambedkar
A well known Indian jurist, statesman. social reformer and scheduled castes leader. Ile was the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee and played a significant role; in ;drafting the Indian Constitution after India attained Independence. He was honoured posthumously with the highest civilian award of Bahrat Ratna on April 14, 1990.

BaburHe was founder of the Mughal Empire in India. Ile conquered the throne of Delhi after the first battle of Panipat (1526) and ruled for four years (1526-1530).

  Bahadur Shah IIwas the last king of Mughal Empire who took part in the Firs War of Indian Independence (so-called Sepoy Mutiny) in 1857. He was sent as a state prisoner to Rangoon (Burma) where he died in 1862.

 Bairam Khan was the tutor and guardian of Akbar, the Great. Akbar acquired the throne of Delhi mainly through his efforts. He was known as Khan-i-Khana.

 Banabhatta was the most celebrated of the learned men and court poet of Harshavardhana author of Harshacharita and Kadaathari. He was the greatest master of Sanskrit prose in his time.
 Banda Bairagi (Also called Banda Bahadur)-was a Rajput by caste and a native of Rajauri (Poonch). He became bairagi in his youth but took up arms against the Mughals on the advice of Guru Gohind Singh; captured in 1716 along with 800 companions and was tortured to death.

 Bhaskara I He was the astronomer of the 7th century and was a contemporary of Brahmagupta, another famous astronomer. India's second satellite for earth observation, Bhaskara, is associated with his name

  Bankim Chandra ChatterjeeBengali novelist; wrote Anand Math and composed Bande Matarani, Durgesh Nandini and Kapal.

  BhavabhutiThe greatest writer of Sanskrit drama after Kalidas. His three plays MahauirCharita. Maki Madhau and Uttar Ram Charita are famous.
 born at Nadia in Bengal. lie was a pioneer of Bhakti movement. He was devoted to Lord Krishna and preached the doctrine of love

 Chanakya He was the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya who founded the Maurya dynasty. He is the author of Artha Shastra, an authentic book on statecraft. He is also known by the name of Kautilya.

 Chand Bibi Daughter of the King of Ahmad Nagar. She was married to Ali Shah, kind of Bijapur. She bravely fought against the soldiers of Aurangzeb but lost her life in the battle.

Chandragupta II (Vlkramaditya)He was a brave emperor of Gupta dynasty. In his time Hindustan was rejuvenated, and art and literature flourished unobstructed. Fa-hien, the first Chinese pilgrim visited India during his region

Charak(1st Century A.D.). Famous physician acquainted with all branches of medicine including surgery during the reign of King Kanishka

C.R. Das Lawyer, poet, journalist and politician, cofounder of Swarajya Party

C. Rajagopalachari
Popularly known as Rajaji, he was the first and last Indian who became Governor-General. Earlier, he was Chief Minister of Madras, a Union Minister and Governor of West Bengal. He was founder of the Swalantra Party.

Dara Shikoheldest son of ShahJahan who was hostile to Aruangzeb. Aurangzeb, the second son of ShahJahan, captured the throne by killing Dara Shikoh in a battle.

Dayanand SarawatiGreat Hindu reformer of the 19th century and founder of the Arya Samaj.
 Dhanvantari A renowned Indian physician who adorned the court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya
 Dhyan Chand The grand old man of Indian Hockey

The founder of Buddhism, was bum as a Kshatriya prince to Suildhodana. king of Kapilvastu in Nepal. His birth place is stated to be Lumbini village. He renounced his royal heritage, and turned away from his pretty wife and infant son to ponder of the problems of birth, death, and disease. He attained enlightenment under a Bodhi tree in Hodha Gaya in Bihar

  Guru Gobind Singhthe tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhsa real founder of Sikh power whose major part of life was spent in fighting with the Mughals.

 Gokhale Gopal Krishna  The doyen of Indian statesmen and the chief leader of the moderate section of Indian National Congress, Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the greatest parliamentarian known to India

Ilango AdigalA Chcra Prince who is the author of the 7th century Tamil epic called Silappadigaram-or the jewel anklet.

 Jayadeva He wrote Gita Govinda in the 12th century. The book is noble specimen of lyrical poetry and describes the love of Lord Krishna and his beloved Radha, their separation and final union.

 Jayprakash Narayan Socialist leader and thinker, devoted himself to Sarvodaya movement. Arrested during Emergency in June 1975. His death in October 1979 created a moral vacuum.

 J.L. Nehru
 The great Indian leader and maker of modern India. He was the first Prime Minister of free India from 1947 05 remained in the office till his death.

 Kabir was one of the greatest exponents of Bhakti Movement-a socioreligious movement spread in the Middle Ages which aimed at stopping conversions to Islam and fighting the tyranny of the Brahmins in the social set.-up of the Hindus. He believed in the unity of God and equality of all religions

 Kalhanawas poet and historian if Kashmir. He lived in the 11th century A.D. He is author of Rajatarangini, his masterpiece

Kalidasa(between (3rd c. B.C. and and 450 A.D.) the greatest epic Snaksrit poet and dramatist. Works Shakuntala, Raghuwansham; Kumar, Samhava; Meghdut: Ritusamhara

Kanishkawas the third and the greatest king of Kushan dynasty (120 A.D. to 162 A.D.) He was a great conqueror, became a patron of Buddhists and was the only ruler of India who had his territory even in Central Asia beyond the Pamirs.

Kharavelawas the ruler of Kalinga. He reigned during the first century B.C. and Kalinga rose to great. fame under his rule. He was a Jain.

Krishnadeva RayaThe most famous Raja of Vijayanagar kingdom. the last great Hindu ruler of Souther India (1509-1529). He was a very learneil man, capable ruler and a great warrior, who often defeated the Muslims.

Kumaril Bhatta was a well-known preacher of Hinduism during the eighth century.

  Megastheneswas an ambassador to Chandragupta Maurya's court sent by Seleueus. He lived in Patilputra for five years (302 B.C. to 298 B.C.). The account written by him of India is a source of our knowledge of that period

 Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
 A very learned man who possessed an uncommon intelligence and remarkable memory but was an unsuccessful and unpopular emperor.

 Muhammad The Prophet : Born in 570 A.D. was the founder of Islam.

  Mahavira (599-527 B.C.)founder of Jainism-a religious sect of the Hindus.

Madan Mohan MalviyaA great Indian nationalist. He had been long associated with Congress Party and was thrice elected its President. Leader of the Hindu Mahasabha; founder of the Bananas Hindu University.

 Man Singh Was the adopted son of Raja Bhagwan Das. He fought against Rana Pratap; in 1576 and won the battle of Gogunda. He was ap pointed by Akbar to govern Kabul. He died in the ninth year of Jehangir's reign.

 Manu Famous Hindu law-giver; author of Manu Simriti.

 Nek Chand The creator of the world famous Rock Garden in Chandigarh has been bestowed official recognition by the Punjab Government and Chandigarh Administration. He has also been honoured by French, the Japa nese and the people of the United States

Prithvi Raj ChauhanA legendary figure in Indian history. A great warrior of his time, valiant soldier and able ruler. He waged many wars against his neighbours. In 1191 he defeated Mohammad Ghori but next year in 1192 was defeated by the latter and put to death.

Pulakesin II
The most powerful ruler of Chalukya dynasty in the Deccan. He extended his territory in all directions and in doing so came into conflict with both Harsha in the north and with the Pallavas in the south. He was successful during most of his reign but was finally de foaled and slain in conflict with the Pallavas.

Pushyamitra Shunga (183-161 B.C.)was the Commander-in-Chief rut the Maurya armies in (he last days of the Mainyas. In approximately 185 B.C. he murdered his master and founded the Sunga dynasty (185-72 B.0 t. Pushyamitra's reign was marked by a Brahminical revival as a reaction against Ashoka's patronage of Buddhism.

A well-known Indian writer and novelist. His Urdu and Hindi novels an short stories have earned international recognition.

Rajaraja I the Great
was a king of the Chola dynasty in the south of India. He was a great conqueror. His conquests Included the territories the Cheras. Pandyas, Vengi Kalinga, and even Ceylon and the Laccadive and Maldive Islands. Under him, the Chola power reached its Zenith. He was responsible for the creation of the great Siva 1 emple at Tanjore.

 Dr. Rajendra Prasad
He was the first President of the Indian Republic (1950-1962). In early life, he was a prominent member of the Youth Movement in Bihar. In 1917, he joined the Congress and took active part in the Non-co-operation Movement of 1920. Ile was Minister for food in 1947; President of the Indian Constituent Assembly (1946-1949).

Ramakrishna ParamhansaGreat religious saint and teacher of Bengal whose teachings led Swami Vivekananda of found the Rama Krishna Mission.

C.V. Raman (1988-1970)was an eminent Indian scientist F.R.S. National Professor of physics and founder Director of Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. He was awarded Nobel Prize of his discovery of 'Raman Effect' (1930). His work on study of crystal structure is of unique importance. He died on November 20, 1970.

RamanujacharyaThe great Vaishnava teacher of Tamil Nadu; founder of Bhakti Movement.

Maharana Pratapthe bravest and the most illustrious figure in the history of Rajputs. A great patriot who refused to submit to Aldiar-the great Mughal Emperor.

Rana SangaRajput ruler of Mewar; a veteran warrior who had lost one eye, one hand, one leg and had scars of eighty wounds on his body. Defeated by Babar in 1527 at the battle of Kanwaha.

Rabindra Nath TagoreGreat Indian poet, novelist, philosopher and thinker. Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Works Gitanjali the Crescent Moon: Fruit Gathering: Gara; The Wreck; Gardener; Sadhana: Mashi; The Post. Office (Dakghar); Hungry Stones.

Razia Begumdaughter of Eltutmish; she was the first and the only Muslim lady who ever sat on the throne of Delhi.

 Raja Ram Mohan Roy
 Raja Ram Mohan Roy was one of the greatest reformers that India has produced. He was instrumental in eradicating social evils like Sati, Purdah and child marriage, from the Indian soil. He advocated widow remarriage and stood for women's education. He was a profound scholar of Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit. He was also the founder of Brahmo Samaj.

 The great Maratha leader who fought the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb tooth and nail. Shivaji drew his inspiration from his mother Jijabai and Guru Ramdas. He vanquished the general sent by Aurangzeb and succeeded in establishing a Hindu State in Deccan.

 Surdas A blind poet who worshipped Krishna and spread Krishna Bhakti cult. Sur Sagar and Shaitya l,ahari are the collections of his poems.

 Samudragupta (330-375 A.D.) : son and successor of Chandra Gupta I; one of the most powerful and the ablest of the Hindu kings; a great milt Gary genius, a great scholar, poet and musician; known as the Indian Napoleon on account of his great conquests.

 Syed Ahmed khan
 An educationist and reformer of the Muslim community in India. He established the M.A.O. College at Aligarh in 1875 which later became Aligarh Muslim University.

 Shri Narayana Guru was great social reformer, saint and philosopher of Kerala who has a place next to AM Sankara. He flourished in the lirsi half of the twentieth century and worked for eradication of untouchability and social equality based on caste. He was the first to propagate the idol of "one caste, one religion and one God" for man.

 Simukawas the founder of Satavahana dynasty. He is said to have destroyed the power of the Kanvas and the remnants of the Sungas.

 Timur A notorious Muslim warrior from Central Asia. tIe is remem bered for his invasion and sack of Delhi where he ordered indiscriminale massacre and plunder. His invasion had caused the end of Tughlaq dy nasty.

 Tipu Sultan Ruler of Mysore, who succeeded his father Haider Ali. He allied himself with the French and declared war on the English. When the Marathas and the Nizam combined together, he was defeated and killed in the battle of Srirangapttam.

 Guru Tegh Bahadur Son of Hargobind whose tercentenary of martyrdom was celebrated throughout the country on the December 6, 1975 was the ninth Guru of Sikhs. He was ordered by Emperor Aurangzeb to embrace Islam; he refused and was executed.

 Celebrated musician and one of the Nor Ratnas in the court of Akbar. He was a great exponent of Indian classical music.

 Todarmal One of the Neat Ratnas and Revenue Minister in the Court of Akbar. Famous for reforms in Land Revenue Administration.

 was a distinguished Indian astronomer, mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems of the court of king Vikramaditya.

 Vivekananda (1863-1902) : A great Hindu saint and religious leader; founder of the Ramakrishna Mission. He was born in Calcutta on January 12, 1863 and his original name was Narendranath Dutta.
He led the Vedanta movement. His message 'influenced many of India's leaders in national awakening in the 20th century. He asked his countrymen to cultivate faith in themselves. He died on January 4, 1902, at the age of 39.

  V.D. Savarkarwas an ardent Indian nationalist who was in the front ranks of the freedom fighters in the twenties. He was sentenced by the
British to transportation for life his part in a conspiracy case. He remained President of the Hindu Mahasabha for a long time. He wrote an account of the happenings of 1857 under the title first Indian War of Independence. He died in 1966.

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