ENGLISH LANGUAGE ( IBPS BANK PO (Preliminary Exam), 22-10-2016 – Previous Year Paper)
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Directions (1-7) : Read the following passage and answer the given questions.
Politics is local but most problems are international. That is the fundamental problem for national governments caught between the twin forces of globalisation and voters’ anger. Tfie European refugee crisis, for example, seems to cry out for a continent-wide solution. But the tide of migrants has been vast and national governments have been tempted to put up barriers first, and answer questions later. The latest example saw Sweden introduce checks on those travelling from Denmark, leading the turn country, in turn, to impose temporary controls on its southern border with Germany. Anti-immigration parties have been gaining in the polls, with the exception of the German Chancellor; mainstream politicians want to head off the challenge. In a way, this looks like the same mismatch that has plagued the euro a single currency without a unitary fiscal and political authority.
Many economists have advocated much greater integration of the euro zone in the wake of the bloc’s crisis. The European banking system. would be stronger if there was a comprehensive deposit-insurance scheme, the economy would be more balanced if there were fiscal transfers from rich to poor countries. But such plans are unpopular with voters in rich countries (who perceive them as handouts) Fand in poor countries (who worry about the implied loss of local control that reforms would require). All that the European Union’s (EU) leaders have managed so far is to cobble together solutions (such as the Greek bail-outs) at the last minute. Gone is the pledge of unity of the G20’s summit in London in 2009, when leaders agreed on a co-ordinated stimulus in response to the financial crisis. Central banks are now heading in different directions, the Federal Reserve has just tightened monetary policy while the European Central Bank and the. Bank of Japan are committed to easing. Trade creates tighter links between countries, but global trade growth has been sluggish in recent years. The OECD thinks that trade grew by only 2% in volume in 2015. No longer is trade rising faster than Global GDP, as it was before the crisis. International agreements require compromise, which leaves politicians vulnerable to criticism from inflexible
components. Voters are already dissatisfied with their lot after years of sluggish gains (or declines) in living standards. When populist politicians suggest that voters’ woes are all the fault of foreigners, they find a ready audience. Furthermore, economic woes can lead to much more aggressive foreign policy. In the developed world, demographic constraints ( a static or shrinking workforce) may limit the scope for the kind of rapid growth needed to reduce the debt burden and make voters happier. Boosting that sluggish growth rate through domestic reforms (breaking up producer cartels, making labour markets more flexible) is very hard because such reforms arouse strong opposition from those affected. The danger is that a vicious cycle sets in. Global problems are not tackled because governments fail to co-operate, voters get angrier and push their leaders into more nationalistic positions and conflict which poses a threat to all.
- What can be concluded from the example of the Greek bailout cited in the passage?
(1) There is tremendous political turmoil in Greece.
(2) The approach to the Greek financial crisis by Euro zone was not appropriate.
(3) Greece has recovered from the financial crisis.
(4) A comprehensive system of deposit insurance need not to be effective.
(5) Greece is on the verge of another financial bailout.
- Which of the following is the central idea of the passage?
(1) A unified approach to regional issues is unwanted and impractical.
(2) Globalisation is on the decline which will reduce social unrest.
(3) Unlike America and Asia, Europe is in severe financial difficulty.
(4) International co-operation is declining which is dangerous.
(5) Restoring faith in developed economies will take a long time.
- Which of the following has/have been the outcome(s) of economic woes?
(A) Uncompromising or antagonistic foreign policy.
(B) An all-powerful single financial regulator for Europe.
(C) Drop in trade volumes.
(1) Only (A)
(2) Only (B)
(3) (A) and (C)
(4) (B) and (C)
(5) None of (A), (B) and (C)
- Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
(1) It is difficult for developed countries to achieve a high growth rate at present.
(2) Europe needs greater economic integration.
(3) Politicians need to take the right steps rather than popular ones.
(4) Anti-globalisation sentiment is quite high.
(5) All of the given options are true in the context of the sentence.
- Which of the following can be said about the G20 summit in London in 2009?
(1) It was organised to address the fallout of the financial crisis.
(2) Countries did not follow-up with a harmonised approach to the crisis.
(3) Sentiments of unity were expressed at the summit.
(4) It was unsuccessful as assurances did not translate into action.
(5) All the given options can be said.
- Which of the following best explains the phrase ‘The danger is that a vicious cycle sets in’ in the context of the passage?
(1) Failure to sacrifice individual interests for common good perpetuates global problems.
(2) With rise in income, consumption is boosted and so is debt.
(3) Having common reforms take away a country’s autonomy.
(4) Boosting trade with OECD countries makes economies vulnerable to oil price fluctuations.
(5) A shrinking workforce in developed and developing countries worsens poverty.
- Which of the following is the author’s view of the refugee crisis?
(1) It is an unmanageable problem controlling Europe and Asia.
(2) To stem migration, rich countries need to safeguard their orders.
(3) Politicians have responded appropriately.
(4) A joint approach is required to resolve the crisis.
(5) None of the given options.
Directions (8-12) : Rearrange the given six sentences/ group of sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the given questions.
(A) It also launched a policy to ban private cars one work-day a week based on the last digit of the number plate and has put restrictions on the number of vehicles from outside the city and raised parking fees in urban areas.
(B) Beijing’s annual bill for traffic congestion amounts to 70 billion Yuan ($11.3 billion), a recent study has found.
(C) However, such measures have done little in reducing congestion.
(D) The study further states that 80 percent of the total loss related to time wasted waiting, 10 percent to gas and 10 percent to environmental damage.
(E) In 2011, it introduced a lottery system to rein in the number of vehicles people buy.
(F) As a result, owing to these losses, the city started tacking the problem years ago.
- Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after the rearrangement ?
- Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement ?
- Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after the rearrangement ?
- Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement?
- Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after the rearrangement?
Directions (13-22) : Read the following sentences to find out whether there is any grammatical error in them. The error if any will in one part of the sentence. Mark the part with error as your answer. If there is no error, mark ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any)
- In a short span of time, this start-up (1)/ website has entrenched itself as the (2)/ go-to abode for cloth that are (3)/ well-designed with care and attention. (4)/ No error (5)
- The battery-operated scooter (1)/ equipped on Lithium-ion batteries that (2)/ provide it with a longer life (3)/ as compared to the conventionaliones. (4)/ No error (5)
- Despite being such a small (1)/ country, Japan have been gone on to conquer (2)/ Southeast Asia almost entirely (3)/ during the mid-twentieth century. (4)/ No error (5)
- Scientists are increasingly concerned (1)/ about the potential long-term effects (2)/ of global warming on our (3)/ natural environment and on the planet. (4)/ No error (5)
- The most powerful advantage (1)/ of the internet is that it (2)/ decentralises work centres and (3)/ therefore makes widespread empowerment. (4)/ No error (5)
- The youngster has proven his ability as (1)/ an aggressive sportsperson and age being (2)/ on his sides, he has a huge (3)/ chance of succeeding in the near future. (4)/ No error (5)
- Ever year in summer, many (1)/ tourists visit to Kumartuli in North (2)/ Kolkata to watch the artisans (3)/ prepare the idols of Goddess Durga. (4)/ No error (5)
- A partnership has been signed by (1)/ an Indian pharmaceutical company with (2)/ a one from Japan in order to (3)/ develop a vaccine for the chikungunya virus. (4)/ No error (5)
- The new government has repealed (1)/ the policy of free speech in (2)/ the country, which has invited (3)/ nationwide criticism from all and sundry. (4)/ No error (5)
- Nothing can be built in this area since (1)/ its soil is saline and contains minerals that (2)/ would eat into any concrete structure (3)/ that coming into contact with this soil. (4)/ No error (5)
Directions (23-30) : In the given passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. Against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find the appropriate word in each case. According to a new study from an international consortium, …(23)… up technology in the classroom doesn’t always lead to better education for children. The report from the OECD tracked educational outcome among students based on their use of technology at home and in the classroom. …(24)… student performance improved when they use technology in moderation, the group found, …(25)… to computers and the internet caused educational outcomes to drop.
The report further stated that …(26)… considerable investments in computers, internet
connections and software for educational use, there is little solid evidence that greater computer use among students leads to better scores in mathematics and reading. Report results are based on an assessment in 2015 that tracked students in more than 40 countries and surveyed them on computer habits and conducted both written and digital tests. On average, seven out of 10 students in countries surveyed, use computers at school and students average at least 25 minutes a day online In some countries, like
Turkey and Mexico, about half of the students do not have …(27)… to a computer at home. The survey found that students with more exposure to computers do better, on average, than those with little exposure to computers, but the OECD …(28)… against drawing conclusions based on that result. The data could simply …(29)… that school systems that invest in technology also invest in- better teachers and draw on students from a higher socio-economic class, who …(30)… to perform better in school.
- (1) dispersing
- (1) Through
- (1) overdoing
- (1) despite
- (1) access
- (1) wake
- (1) reverse
- (1) inclined