Directions (1-10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/ phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while 'answering some of the questions.
Inequality is at the top of the agenda around the world. Hilary Clinton, the leading Democratic candidate to succeed Barack Obama as president of the United. States, made inequality the centrepiece of a major campaign speech.
Economists at the IMF too have recently released a study assessing the causes and consequences of rising inequality. Its authors reckon that while inequality could cause all sorts of problems, governments should be especially concerned about its effects on growth. They estimate that a one percentage .point increase in the income share of the top 20% will drag down growth by 0.08% percentage points over five years, while a rise in the income share of the bottom 20% actually boosts growth. But how does inequality affect economic growth rates? Economists say that some inequality is needed to propel growth. Without the carrot of large financial rewards, risky entrepreneurship and innovation would grind to a halt. In 1975, an American economist, argued that societies cannot have both perfect equality and perfect efficiency, but must choose how much of one to sacrifice for the other. While most economists continue to hold that view, the recent rise in inequality has prompted a new look at its economic costs. Inequality could impair growth if those with low incomes suffer poor health and low productivity as a result, or if, as evidence suggests, the poor struggle to finance investments in education, inequality could also threaten public confidence in growth-boosting capitalist strategies like free trade.
More recent work suggests that inequality, could lead to economic or financial instability. The governor of the Reserve Bank of India argued that governments often respond to inequality by easing the flow of credit to poorer households, howe+er, American households borrowed heavily prior to the crisis to prop up their consumption. But for this rise in household debt, consumption would have stagnated as a result of poor wage growth. Crafting a response to rising inequality is therefore tricky, he says. Some of the negative impact of inequality on growth can be blamed on poor government policies in highly unequal countries. In Latin America, for instance, populist pressure for excessive state economic control seems to shorten the average duration of growth spells. Yet in moderation, redistribution seems to benign effects-perhaps by reducing dependence on risky borrowing among poorer households. Over the past generation or two inequality has risen most in places where progressive policies, such as high top tax-rates, have been weakened. A little more redistribution now might improve the quality and quantity of economic-growth and reduce the demand for more aggressive state interventions later.
- Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word CARROT given in bold as used in the passage.
- Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word SPELLS given in bold as used in the passage.
- Which of the following best describes the opinion of experts regarding inequality?
(1) The impact of inequality on growth is exaggerated by governments.
(2) Inequality is a complex phenomenon and requires careful handling.
(3) Governments should aim at achieving perfect equality,
(4) State interventions such as redistribution cannot reduce inequality.
(5) Easing the flow of credit to poor households is the way to reduce inequality.
- According to the passage, which of the following is/are the possible impact(s) of inequality?
(A) It affects economic stability-Of a country.
(B) The public may object to policies like free trade.
(C) It discourages entrepreneurship and innovation.
(1) Only (A)
(2) Only (B)
(3) All (A), (B) and (C)
(4) Only (A) and (B)
(5) Only (B) and (C)
- What do the examples of Hilary Clinton and IMF economists cited in the passage convey?
(1) Politicians misrepresent research depending on the message they want to de-. liver.
(2) Americans are not con-. cerned with the impact of growing inequality.
(3) Social issues arc focused on prior to elections but not implemented thereafter,
(4) The issue of inequality is getting a lot of attention at present.
(5) America and the IMF di--. agree on the measures "to be adopted to handle inequality
- What is the author's view regarding policies such as high top tax-rates?
(1) These are pointless as they drag down growth.
(2) He is in favour of these as research shows they have a positive impact.
(3) He believes they promote risky lending practice among the poor.
(4) These are unfair as they impact less than 20 percent of the population.
(5) Other than those given as options.
- Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(1) Governments and central bankers are in agreement on the measures needed to reduce inequality.
(2) India and Latin America have the highest rates of inequality.
(3) Government policies of redistribution of wealth serve no purpose whatsoever.
(4) .Inequality is on the rise on / account of the partial policies of the IMF.
(5) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage.
- Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning to the word BENIGN given in bold as used in the passage.
- Which of the following is the central idea of the passage?
(1) Inequality impacts growth and cannot be eliminated.
(2) Inequality is growing in developed countries not just developing ones.
(3) Those in positions of power are unconcerned about the effects of inequality.
(4) Economists in developed and developing countries disagree about managing inequality.
(5) The IMF should take the lead and define acceptable norms of inequality.
- Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning to the word FREE given in bold as used in the passage,
Directions (11-15) : Rearrange the given six sentences/group of sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the given questions.
(A) These nuggets contain words of caution because many young middle-class Chinese who gear up during the nation's glittering boom years, are suddenly confronting the shadow of an economic slowdown and even hints of austerity.
(B) Titled "Guide on Safe Passage Through the Economic Crisis", it is aimed at young Chinese urban professionals.
(C) Recently, an advice column has been circulating widely on China's most poular social media phone app.
(D) Its nuggets of wisdom include "Work hard at your job so you are the last to be laid off and "In an economic crisis, liquidity is the number one priority".
(E) By austerity they mean cancelling vacations and delaying weddings and even selling recently purchased apartments to have cash on hand.
(F) These frantic measures are prompting the leaders to take appropriate actions to bring the situation under control.
- Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?
- Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?
- Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after rearrangement?
- Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement?
- Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
Directions (16 - 20) : Each sentence below has two blanks. each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the words that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
- The actress is............. that she will be spending her birthday with her husband and other.............. of the family.
(1) ecstatic, elements
(2) abject, sources
(3) confused, people
(4) mundane, partners
(5) thrilled, members
- Steep hills and low rise traditional buildings that once ..............the mosque have in recent years............. given to shopping malls and luxury hotels.
(1) befell, up
(2) encased, space
(3) beautified, forward
(4) hid, liberty
- Scientific research has now...........that a fish-rich diet can help .............depression.
(1) established, react
(2) confirmed, curb
(3) released, combat
(4) revealed, accustom
(5) deepened, limit
- The actress who put on a lot of weight to effectively ............the character she played in her film, looks like a...........heroine now.
(1) depict, conventional
(2) pass, regular
(3) portray, more
(4) revolve, usual'
(5) represent, absolute
- Even as he.......... himself for his film debut, the comedian is........... getting a taste of how some friendships in showbiz come with a price tag.
(1) prepares, favourably
(2) readies, allegedly
(3) locates, reportedly
(4) shows, apparently
(5) apportions, supposedly
Directions (21-25): In the following questions, read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select No error' as your answer. Ignore the error of punctuation, if any.
- The pledges that countries (1)/ are making to battle climate change (2)/ will still result in the world (3)/ heating up by more than 6 degree Celsius. (4)/ No error (5)
- When it come to helping (1)/ one another, it turns out (2)/ that some fish are better (3)/ at it than previously thought. (4)/ No error (5)
- Every child in our (1)/ country has the right (2)/ to acquire quality (3)/ primary and secondary education. (4) / No error (5)
- The club members are (I)/ socially responsible and (2)/ take part in (3)/ variety volunteering activities. (4)/ No error (5)
- On Sunday night, (1)/ a rare astronomical phenomenon will have produce (2)/ a moon that will appear slightly bigger (3)7 than usual and have a reddish hue. (4)/ No error (5)
Directions (26-30) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. Against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
A (26) affecting the quality of primary education appears to be (27) levels of teacher motivation. In 2002-2003, 25% of primary-school teachers', in rural India were absent on any given day. The impact of absenteeism is (28) by the fact that the average primary school in India has a workforce of no more than three teachers. The obvious reason, remuneration, does not appear to be a (29). In fact, both education experts and ordinary citizens (30) that government-employed school teachers are paid relatively well. UNESCO surveys from as early as 2004 indicated that the annual statutory salary of primary school teachers in India with 15 years' experience was more than $14,000.
- (1) important
- (1) high
- (1) exacerbated
- (1) presence
- (1) together