Diversity in Living Organisms Notes – Class 9 Science
Diversity in Living Organisms
Biodiversity: The variety of living beings found in geographical area is called biodiversity of that area. Amazon rainforests is the largest biodiversity hotspot in the world.
Need for Classification: Classification is necessary for easier study of living beings. Without proper classification, it would be impossible to study millions of organisms which exist on this earth.
Basis of Classification:
Ancient Greek thinker Aristotle classified living beings on the basis of their habitat. He classified them into two groups, i.e. those living in water and those living on land. But his classification was too simple to justify inclusion of a particular organism into a particular group.
Some examples of scientific bases of classification are as follows:
Organization of nucleus: Nucleus may or may not be organized in an organism. On this basis, organisms can be divided into two groups, viz. prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
When nucleus is not organized, i.e. nuclear materials are not membrane bound; the organism is called prokaryote.
When nucleus is organized, i.e. nuclear materials are membrane bound; the organism is called eukaryote.
Number of cells
An organism can be composed of a single cell or many cells. An organism with a single cell is called unicellular organism. On the other hand, an organism with more than one cell is called multicellular organism.
Mode of Nutrition
On this basis, organisms can be divided into two broad groups, i.e. autotrophs and heterotrophs. An autotroph makes its own food, while a heterotroph depends on other organisms for food.
Level of Organisation
Even in case of multicellular organisms, there can be different levels of organization. When a cell is responsible for all the life processes, it is called cellular level or organization. When some cells group together to perform specific function, it is called tissue level of organization. When tissues group together to form some organs, it is called organ level of organization. Similarly organ system level of organization is seen in complex organisms.
Classification and Evolution
It is a well established fact that all the life forms have evolved from a common ancestor. Scientists have proved that the life begun on the earth in the form of simple life forms. During the course of time, complex organism evolved from them. So, classification is also based on evolution. A simple organism is considered to be primitive while a complex organism is considered to be advanced.
Biodiversity means the diversity of life forms. It is a word commonly used to refer to the variety of life forms found in a particular region. Diverse life forms share the environment and are affected by each other too. As a result, a stable community of different species comes into existence. Humans have played their own part in recent times in changing the balance of such communities. Of course, the diversity in such communities is affected by particular characteristics of land, water, climate and so on. Rough estimates state that there are about ten million species on the planet, although we actually know only one or two millions of them. The warm and humid tropical regions of the earth, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, are rich in diversity of plant and animal life. This is called the region of megadiversity. Of the biodiversity of the planet, more than half is concentrated in a few countries – Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Zaire, Madagascar, Australia, China, India, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Hierarchy of Classification-
This is the most accepted system of classification. The five kingdoms and their key characteristics are given below:
- Monera: These are prokaryotes; which means nuclear materials are not membrane bound in them. They may or may not have cell wall. They can be autotrophic or heterotrophic. All organisms of this kingdom are unicellular. Examples: bacteria, blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and mycoplasma.
- Protista: These are eukaryotes and unicellular. Some organisms use cilia or flagella for locomotion. They can be autotrophic or heterotrophic. Examples: unicellular algae, diatoms and protozoans.
- Fungi: These are heterotrophic and have cell wall. The cell wall is made of chitin. Most of the fungi are unicellular. Many of them have the capacity to become multicellular at certain stage in life. They feed on decaying organic materials. Such a mode of nutrition is called saprophytic. Some fungi live in symbiotic relationship with other organisms, while some are parasites as well. Examples: yeast, penicillin, aspergillus, mucor, etc.
- Plantae: These are multicellular and autotrophs. Presence of chlorophyll is a distinct characteristic of plants, because of which they are capable of doing photosynthesis. Cell wall is present.
- Animalia: These are multicellular and heterotrophs. Cell wall is absent.
The word Porifera means organisms with holes. These are non-motile animals attached to some solid support. There are holes or ‘pores’, all over the body. These lead to a canal system that helps in circulating water throughout the body to bring in food and oxygen. These animals are covered with a hard outside layer or skeleton. The body design involves very minimal differentiation and division into tissues. They are commonly called sponges and are mainly found in marine habitats.
These are the animal living in water.They show more body design differentiation. There is a cavity in the body. The body is made of two layers of cells: one makes up cells on the outside of the body, and the other makes the inner lining of the body. Some of these species live in colonies (corals), while others have a solitary like–span (Hydra). Jellyfish
The body of animals in this group is far more complexly designed than in the two other groups we have considered so far. The body is bilaterally symmetrical, meaning that the left and the right halves of the body have the same design. There are three layers of cells from which differentiated tissues can be made, which is why such animals are called triploblastic. This allows outside and inside body linings as well as some organs to be made. There is thus some degree of tissue formation. However, there is no true internal body cavity or coelom, in which well-developed organs can be accommodated. The body is flattened dorsoventrally, meaning from top to bottom, which is why these animals are called flatworms. They are either free-living
or parasitic. Some examples are free-living animals like planarians or parasitic animals like liver flukes
Annelid animals are also bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic, but in addition they have a true body cavity. This allows true organs to be packaged in the body structure. There is, thus, extensive organ differentiation. This differentiation occurs in a segmental fashion, with the segments lined up one after the other from head to tail. These animals are found in a variety of habitats– freshwater, marine water as well as land. Earthworms and leeches
- Classification helps us in exploring the diversity of life forms.
- The major characteristics considered for classifying all organisms into five major kingdoms are:
(a) whether they are made of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells
(b) whether the cells are living singly or organized into multicellular and thus complex organisms
(c) whether the cells have a cell wall and whether they prepare their own food.
- All living organisms are divided on the above basis into five kingdoms, namely Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.
- The classification of life forms is related to their evolution.
- Plantae and Animalia are further divided into subdivisions on the basis of increasing complexity of body organization.
- Plants are divided into five groups: Thallophytes, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
- Animals are divided into ten groups: Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Protochordata and Vertebrata.
- The binomial nomenclature makes for a uniform way of identification of the vast diversity of life around us.
- The binomial nomenclature is made up of two words – a generic name and a specific name.