IN-TEXT QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q1. page 42.
What would have happened in South Africa if the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?
Ans. The whites were fortunate that the blacks didn’t take revenge on them. But if the black majority had done this, it would have been difficult for the whites to exist. They would have been completely suppressed for ever.
Q2. page 43.
Does the story of South Africa struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian national movement? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points:
• Nature of colonialism
• Relationship between different communities.
• Leadership: Gandhi / Mandela
• Party that led the struggle: African National Congress/Indian National Congress.
• Method of Struggle
Ans. • Nature of Colonialism – Both the countries (India and South Africa) were colonies under the control of European nations. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied South Africa with arms and force, in the way they occupied India. But unlike India, a large number of ‘whites’ had settled in South Africa and became the local rulers.
• Relationship between different communities – In both the countries several communities lived but
there were great disparities between each of the communities. Some were privileged communities while others led a miserable life.
• Leadership: Gandhi/Mandela – The freedom struggle of India was led by Mahatma Gandhi while in South Africa it was led by Nelson Mandela. Both these leaders were very popular in their countries. They successfully handled the situation and finally achieved freedom.
• Party that led the struggle – In South Africa, it was African National Congress that led the freedom struggle of the countries whereas in India, it was Indian National Congress that brought independence in the country by successfully leading the struggle.
• Method of struggle – Both Gandhi and Mandela applied non-violence while leading the freedom struggle in their countries. Both believed in the same principles and showed the same amount of endurance and forbearance.
Q3. page 44.
This is not fair. What was the point in having a Constituent Assembly in India if all the basics were already decided?
Ans. The basic values that were accepted by all the leaders much before the Constituent Assembly met to deliberate on the Constitution were – universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India. Apart from these basic values there were many more things that needed to be discussed in order to run the country peacefully and smoothly such as how to bring economic development in the country, how to remove poverty, etc. The Constituent Assembly in India wanted to make a constitution that could satisfy all the sections of the people. Hence, it was essential to discuss on all important points. The basic values were already in existence. They didn’t need any further discussion. What was needed was to discuss other aspects of the newly independent India.
Q4. page 47.
Read the information about all the makers of the Indian Constitution given in the side columns here. You don’t need to memorise this information. Just give examples from these to support the following statements:
1. The Assembly had many members who were not the Congress.
Ans. – (i) Jaipal Singh
(ii) Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
(iii) Somnath Lahiri
2. The Assembly represented members from different social groups.
Ans. – (i) Adivasi Maha Sabha
(ii) Bharatiya Jansangh
(iii) Andhra Mahila Sabha
3. Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies.
Ans. – (i) Abul Kalam Azad – Opposed Muslim separatist politics.
(ii) G. Durgabai Deshmukh – Public activist for women’s emancipation.
(iii) B.R. Ambedkar – Social revolutionary thinker and agitator against caste divisions and caste based inequalities.