Challenges to Democracy – Class 10 X – Political Social Science – Textbook NCERT Solutions

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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Q1. Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to  democracy. Please describe what that challenge is Also place it in one of the three categories mentioned in the  first section. 


Q2. Complete the table given below:

 Case and context Your description of challenges
for democracy in that situation
 Chile: General Pinochet’s government defeated, but military still in control of many institutions
 Poland:After the first success of Solidarity, the government imposed martial law and banned Solidarity.
 Ghana: Just attained independence, Nkrum.ah. elected president
 Myanmar: Sint Kyi under house arrest for more than 15 years, army rulers getting global acceptance
 International organisations: US as the only super power disregards the UN and takes unilateral action
 Mexico: Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidate alleges
rigging
 China: Communist Party adopts economic reforms but maintains monopoly over political power
 Pakistan:  General Mushiarraf holds
referendum, allegations of fraud in voters’ list
Iraq Widespreod sectarian violence as the new governinent fails to establish its authority
 South Africa: Mandela retires from ‘active politics, pressure on his successor Weld to withdraw some concessions given to White minority
 US, .Guantanamo Bay: UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law,LIS refused to respond
 Saudi Arabia: Women not allowed to take part in public activities, no freedom of religion for minorities
 Yugoslavia: Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of KosoVO. Yugoslavia disintegrated
 Belgium: One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch • speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy
 Sri Lanka: The peace talks between the government and the LTTE break down, renewed violence .
 US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal
rights, but are still poor, less educated and !marginalised
 Northern Ireland: The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust
 Nepal: Constituent Assembly about to be. elected, unrest in Terai areas, Maoists ha ve not surrendered arms
 Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes Prime Minister,IvINCs threaten to leave the country

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Ans.

Case and context Your description of challenges
for democracy in that situation
 Chile: General Pinochet’s government defeated, but military still in control of many institutionExample} Establis.hing civilian
control over all governmental institutions, holding the first multi-party elections, recalling all political leaders from exile.
 Poland:After the first success of Solidarity, the government imposed martial law and banned Solidarity.Foundational challenge
Ghana: Just attained independence, Nkrumah  elected presidentChallenge of expansion of democracy
 Myanmar: Suu Kyi under house arrest for more than 15 years, army rulers getting global acceptanceChallenge of expansion of democracy
International organisations: US as the only super power disregards the UN and takes unilateral actionChallenge of deepening of democracy
Mexico: Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidate alleges riggingChallenge of deepening of democracy
China: Communist Party adopts economic reforms but maintains monopoly over political powerChallenge of expansion of democracy
Pakistan:  General Mushiarraf holds
referendum, allegations of fraud in voters’ list
Challenge of dictatorship
Iraq :  Widespreod sectarian violence as the new governinent fails to establish its authorityFoundational challenge
South Africa: Mandela retires from ‘active politics, pressure on his successor Weld to withdraw some concessions given to White minorityChallenge of deepening of democracy
 US, .Guantanamo Bay: UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law,LIS refused to respondChallenge of expansion
Saudi Arabia: Women not allowed to take part in public activities, no freedom of religion for minoritiesChallenge of expansion of democracy
Yugoslavia: Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo. Yugoslavia disintegratedChallenge of expansion of democracy
Belgium: One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch  speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomyChallenge of deepening of democracy
Sri Lanka: The peace talks between the government and the LTTE break down, renewed violence .Challenge of expansion of democracy
 US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal
rights, but are still poor, less educated and marginalised
Challenge of expansion of democracy
Northern Ireland: The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trustChallenge of deepening of democracy
Nepal: Constituent Assembly about to be. elected, unrest in Terai areas, Maoists have not surrendered armsFoundational challenge
 Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes Prime Minister,MNCs threaten to leave the countryChallenge of dictat orship


Q3. Given below are some spheres or sites of democratic politics. You may place against each of these the specific challenges that you noted for one or more countries or cartoons in the previous section. In addition to that write one item for India for each of these spheres. In case you find that some challenges do not fit into any of the categories given below, you can create new categories and put some items under that.

  Constitutional design…………………………………
Democratic rights…………………………………..
Working of institutions………………………………….
Elections…………………………………..
Federalism decentralisation……………………………………..
Accommodation of diversity…………………………………….
political organization………………………………………
Any other category……………………………………

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Ans. 

Constitutional designFoundational challenge
Democratic rightsChallenge of expansion and d eepening of democracy
Working of institutionsFoundational challenge
ElectionsChallenge of deepening of
democracy
Federalism decentralisationChallenge of deepening
democracy
Accommodation of diversityChallenge of expansion o
democracy
political organizationFoundational challenge


Q4. let us group these again this time by  the nature  of these  challenges as per the classification suggested in the first section. For each of these categories, find at least one example from India as well.

Challenges Examples 
Foundational challenge………………………
Challenge of expansion……………………..
Challenge of deepening…………………….

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Ans.

Challenges Examples 
Foundational challengePoland, Myanmar, Pakistan, Iraq, Nepal
Challenge of expansionSri Lanka; Saudi Arabia
Challenge of deepeningSouth Africa, Mexico


Q5. Now let us think only about India. Think of all the challenges Thai democracy faces in contemporary India. It’d those live that should be addressed first of all. the listing should be in ordr of priority i.e., the challenge  you find most important or pressing should be mentiot lc, at number 1, and so on. Give one example of Iloo challenge and your reasons for assigning it the prior

PriorityChallenges to
democracy
ExampleReasons for preferecnce
1Foundational
challenge
A few reforms should be made in our Constitutional designs so that present challenges of the country may be resolved smoothly.The world is changimg fast
some rforms in the constutional desings would help india keep pace with the world.
2Challenge of
expansion
Division of power among various
units of the  government.
india is  a vast country with a lot of diversities, in such a case it essential to give power  to the local  self government
3Challenge of
deepening
Women and disadvantaged groups
should be given representation.
Women and disadv antaged groups such as  SCs and STs  are also the citizens of India.  they should be given e, status in the society
4Challenge of
corruption
Wealth and properties that politicians possessPoliticians should be  restricted
to accumulate  immense wealth.

 


Q6. Here are some challenges that require political rept in.. Discuss these challenges in detail. Study the rep), in options offered here and give your preferred solution inn!, reasons. Remember that none of the options offered  here ‘, is ‘right’ or ‘wrong’. You can opt for a mix of more one option, or come up with something that is not our, cii here. But you must give your solution in details and offer  reasons for your choice

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Ans.

Doctors’ absenteeism Challenge:
In a survey. Uttar Pradesh government found that most of the doctors posted in the rural primary health Centres don’t live in villages and practise there. Rather they live in a town, carry out private practice and visit the villages once or twice monthly. Villagers have to travel to towns and pay very high fee to private doctors even for normal diseases.

Reform proposals:
— The government should make ii compulsory for the doctors lo live in the village where they are posted, otherwise their service should be terminated.
— Surprise raids to check the attendance of the doctors by district administration and police should be carried irut
— Village panchayat should be given the power to write the animal report of the doctor which should  be read oat in the grow Flthha meeting.
Uttar Pradesh into several smaller stales which can be administered more efficiently.

Suggested Options
— Doctor’s visits in the village hospitals (where they are posted) should be made compulsory and a proper record should be kept about the same.
— Absenteeism should be taken strictly and they should be expelled from the services if found guilty. Special staff should be appointed to keep a check on them and they Should frequently make surprise visits to control doctors’ absenteeism.

Political funding Challenge:
Almost every candidate who contested the last Lok Sabha elections owned a property of more than one crore. Most of the political parties are dependent on money given by big business houses which will eventually reduce the role of the poor in democracy.

Reform proposals:
— The financial accounts of every polit kat party should be examined by government auditors.
– There should be stale funding of
elections. Parties should be given some money iy the government to meet their election expenditure.
— Citizens should be encouraged to give more donations to parties and to political workers. Such donations should be exempted from income tax.

Suggested options
State government should keep a check on the money spent by the political parties during elections and state funding of elections should be incorporated.
— Party leaders spending ‘more money than fixed by state government ‘should be answerable to the government.


Q7. Here is your space for writing your own definition of good  democracy. (Write your name here)………………’s definition of good democracy (not more than 50 words) Features (use only as many points as you want. Try to ? compress it in as few points as possible)

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Ans.
Good democracy. A form of government in which I he supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them.
Features
1. Constitutional design
2. Democratic rights
3. People’s rule
4. Free and fair elections
5. Federalism-decentralisation
6. Accommodation of diversities
7. Political organisations

 


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